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Table 5 Odds ratios for health/mental healthcare referrals, with 95% confidence interval (CI). N = 2054

From: Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

  Model I
Empty model
Model II Model III Model IV
Fixed effects     
Individual-level variables     
Ethnicity     
   Swedish   1 (reference) 1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Nordic countries (other than Sweden)   1.37 (0.75-2.50) 1.41 (0.76-2.62) 1.39 (0.74-2.61)
   Other European countries   1.39 (0.86-2.25) 1.34 (0.82-2.20) 1.32 (0.83-2.11)
   Asia   1.57 (1.16-2.13)** 1.62 (1.18-2.22)** 1.58 (1.19-2.11)**
   South America   2.11 (1.24-3-57)** 2.07 (1.22-3.51)** 2.03 (1.21-3.38)**
   Africa   1.07 (0.49-2.34) 1.16 (0.55-2.45) 1.13 (0.52-2.46)
Gender     
   Girl    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Boy    1.24 (1.02-1.50)* 1.24 (1.02-1.50)*
Age    0.90 (0.85-0.95)*** 0.90 (0.85-0.95)***
Family structure     
   Living with both parents    1 (reference) 1 (reference)
   Not living with both parents    0.70 (0.60-0.83)*** 0.70 (0.60-0.83)***
Neighbourhood-level variable     
Neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation     1.02 (0.92-1.13)
Random effects     
Between-neighbourhood variance (SE)1 0.027 (0.164) 0.011 (0.105) 0.005 (0.074) 0.006 (0.078)
ICC (%) 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.2
Explained variance (%) - 62.5 75.0 75.0
  1. ***p <.001, **p <.01, *p <.05. 1 Standard error.