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Table 1 Associations of Family Variables with Withdrawn Behavior/Depression in Children, São Gonçalo/RJ/Brazil (intermediate block)

From: CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

Family Variables   (%) Withdrawn/depression OR Confidence Interval*
FAMILY STRUCTURE Both parents (n = 251) 9.6 - -
Without father and mother (n = 17) 5.9 0.59 (0.08-4.66)
With Stepparent (n = 78) 21.8 2.64 (1.32-5.22)
With only one of the parents (n = 115) 4.3 0.43 (0.16-1.16)
SIBLING From same marital relationship (n = 226) 8.4 - -
From different marital relationship (n = 205) 11.2 1.37 (0.72-2.61)
Do not have sibling (n = 32) 18.8 2.51 (0.92-6.86)
FATHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP Good (n = 365) 8.8 - -
Regular/Bad (n = 65) 23.1 2.11 (1.09-4.09)
Do not have (n = 24) - - -
MOTHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP Good (n = 412) 9.5 - -
Regular/Bad (n = 46) 19.6 2.10 (0.95-4.64)
Do not have (n = 4) - - -
SIBLING RELATIONSHIP Good (n = 290) 7.9 - -
Regular/Bad (n = 134) 14.2 1.92 (1.00.-3.66)
Do not have (n = 33) 18.2 2.6 (0.96-6.88)
SUPPORT OF CLOSE FRIENDS/FAMILY Yes (n = 348) 8.9 - -
No (n = 94) 16. 1.94 (1.00-3.77)
EXTERNAL SUPPORT Yes (n = 141) 7.8 - -
No (n = 301) 11.6 1.55 (0.76-3.16)
FINANCIAL PROBLEMS (stressful life event) No (n = 193) 5.7 - -
Yes (n = 267) 14. 2.66 (1.32-5.36)
SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEM (stressful life event) No (n = 218) 7.3 - -
Yes (n = 244) 13. 1.91 (1.01-3.58)
RELATIVE ACCUSED/PRISON (stressful life event) No (n = 350) 11.4 - -
Yes (n = 110) 7.3 0.61 (0.27-1.34)
ALCOHOL/DRUG ABUSE (stressful life event) No (n = 293) 8.9 - -
Yes (n = 168) 13.1 1.54 (0.84-2.82)
PARENTAL DIVORCE (stressful life event) No (n = 216) 7. - -
Yes (n = 248) 13.3 2.05 (1.08-3.9)
REMARRIAGE OF A PARENT (stressful life event) No (n = 288) 8.7 - -
Yes (n = 175) 13.1 1.59 (0.87-2.9)
CHILD´S DISEASE RECEIVED MEDICAL CARE (stressful life event) No (n = 247) 8.9 - -
Yes (n = 216) 12. 1.4 (0.77-2.55)
VERY SEVERE PHYSICAL VIOLENCE (MOTHER/FATHER X CHILD) No (n = 427) 9.1 - -
Yes (n = 37) 24.3 3.19 (1.08-1.41)
HUMILIATION (Psychological Violence) Rarely/Never (n = 365) 8.2 - -
Some times (n = 67) 11.9 1.51 (0.66-3.46)
Always/almost always (n = 30) 30.0 4.78 (2.01-11.37)
CRITICISM (Psychological Violence) Rarely/Never (n = 199) 7.5 - -
Some times (n = 188) 9.0 1.22 (0.59-2.52)
Always/almost always (n = 74) 20.3 3.12 (1.44-6.76)
TO CALL OF “CRAZY”, “IDIOT” OR “STUPID” (Psychological Violence) Rarely/Never (n = 229) 6.6 - -
Some times (n = 157) 10.8 1.73 (0.84-3.58)
Always/almost always (n = 77) 20.8 3.74 (1.75-7.99)
INTIMATE PARTNER PHYSICAL VIOLENCE (wife x husband) No (n = 312) 8.7 - -
Yes (n = 84) 18. 2.29 (1.16-4.54)
INTIMATE PARTNER PHYSICAL VIOLENCE (husband x wife) No (n = 309) 9.1 - -
Yes (n = 89) 17. 2.03 (1.03-4.00)
SIBLINGS VIOLENCE No (n = 243) 7.4 - -
Yes (n = 208) 13. 1.86 (0.99-3.49)
  1. *p < 0.05.
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