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Table 3 Distribution of comorbid diagnoses among ODD (+) and ODD (−) cases according to waves*

From: Prevalence and diagnostic stability of ADHD and ODD in Turkish children: a 4-year longitudinal study

  1stwave 2ndwave 3rdwave 4thwave
ODD (+) ODD (−) ODD (+) ODD (−) ODD (+) ODD (−) ODD (+) ODD (−)
N = 23 N = 63 N = 14 N = 69 N = 15 N = 71 N = 11 N = 70
  n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-% n-%
ADHD 20–87.0% * 20–31.7% * 13–92.9% ** 32–46.4% ** 15–100% * 30–42.3% * 8–72.7% 20–28.6% *
Anxiety Disorders 7–30.4% 26–41.3% 2–14.3% 5–7.2% -- 2–2.8% -- 4–5.7%
Mood Disorders 2–8.7% 6–9.5% -- 1–1.4% 1-6.7% 4–5.6% -- 3–4.3%
Tic Disorders 2–8.7% 4–6.3% 1–7.1% 1–1.4% -- 1–1.4% 1–9.1% --
Enuresis 3–13.0% 12–19.0% 2–14.3% 6–8.7% -- 3–4.2% -- 2–2.9%
Encopresis 3–13.0% 1–1.6% -- -- -- -- -- --
  1. * The comorbidity rates presented are based in the independent sub-samples assessed for ODD. So, ADHD comorbid rates does not match the number of ADHD cases assessed in the ADHD sub-sample.
  2. ODD Opposition defiant disorder, ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
  3. N = Number of patients with or without ODD diagnosis, n = Number of patients with comorbid diagnosis, % = Percentage of patients with comorbid diagnosis.
  4. Bold values mark statistically significant difference.
  5. *p < 0.001, **p = 0.001.