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Table 2 Mean scores of parent- and teacher-rated SDQs and gender and age effects

From: Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children

  Boys Girls Gender effect (p, r) 7-9 years 10-12 years 13-15 years Age effect (p, Cramer’s V)
SDQ M (SD) M (SD)   M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)  
Parent ratings (n = 12,472) (n = 12,047)   (n = 9,968) (n = 8,584) (n = 6,267)  
  Total difficulties 8.02 (5.26) 7.11 (4.76) 8.39 (5.09) 7.20 (4.94) 6.82 (4.94) a‡ b‡ c‡, 0.15
  Emotional symptoms 1.31 (1.67) 1.49 (1.76) 1.59 (1.77) 1.33 (1.67) 1.21 (1.68) a‡ b‡ c‡, 0.11
  Conduct problems 1.92 (1.59) 1.70 (1.43) 2.01 (1.57) 1.74 (1.50) 1.62 (1.43) a‡ b‡ c‡, 0.12
  Hyperactivity/inattention 3.23 (2.30) 2.49 (1.98) 3.27 (2.26) 2.69 (2.13) 2.49 (2.00) a‡ b‡ c‡, 0.16
  Peer problems 1.55 (1.69) 1.42 (1.50) 1.52 (1.57) 1.44 (1.58) 1.51 (1.68) a‡
  Prosocial behavior 5.80 (2.15) 6.50 (2.08) 6.18 (2.10) 6.26 (2.15) 5.91 (2.20) a† b‡ c‡
Teacher ratings (n = 4,010) (n = 3,967)   (n = 3,098) (n = 2,962) (n = 1,917)  
  Total difficulties 6.37 (5.80) 3.95 (4.50) , 0.24 5.74 (5.70) 4.94 (5.22) 4.58 (4.79) a‡ c‡
  Emotional symptoms 0.82 (1.48) 0.77 (1.42) 0.93 (1.55) 0.76 (1.44) 0.64 (1.23) a‡ b‡ c†
  Conduct problems 1.20 (1.68) 0.68 (1.22) 1.06 (1.61) 0.90 (1.45) 0.81 (1.35) a† c‡
  Hyperactivity/inattention 2.89 (2.67) 1.37 (1.76) , 0.31 2.46 (2.60) 2.01 (2.32) 1.79 (2.04) a‡ c‡
  Peer problems 1.47 (1.86) 1.13 (1.56) 1.30 (1.71) 1.28 (1.75) 1.34 (1.73)  
  Prosocial behavior 5.73 (2.74) 7.14 (2.49) , 0.26 6.47 (2.68) 6.48 (2.70) 6.28 (2.76) c†
  1. Note. SDQ, strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Age bands 7–9 years, 10–12 years, 13–15 years correspond to grades 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, respectively.
  2. Age effect: a7–9 yrs > 10–12 yrs, b10–12 yrs > 13–15 yrs, c7–9 yrs > 13–15 yrs. p < 0.05, p < 0.001.