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Table 1 Major behavioral problems of children discussed in 30 key informant interviews

From: Perceived behavioral problems of school aged children in rural Nepal: a qualitative study

Reported major behavior problem (N = number of key Informants) Signs and Symptoms (n = number of frequencies) Causes (n = number of frequencies) Effects (n = number of frequencies)
Addictive behaviors including: drinking alcohol, smoking cigarettes/marijuana (Kulat ma fasne) Speak rudely or use foul language (17) Unfavorable family environment (illiteracy, bad habits, addiction of parents, family discord) (14) Family, teachers, friends and community views them negatively/don’t like them or care for them/demean them (17)
(N = 17) Fight with, threaten/beat friends, family, teachers, and community) (17) Bad influence of friends (13) Negative effects in their education (expulsion from school, failure in exams, discontinue education) (16)
  Roam around the neighborhood (14) Parents don’t pay attention to their children (13) Display other behavioral problems (involvement in criminal activities, become violent towards others) (12)
  Become disobedient (9) Lack of awareness (of parents and children) (10) Negative effects in neighbors and community (loss of social cohesion, disturbance of peace) (10)
  Steal other’s possessions (8) Poverty (9) Negative effects in the family (family discord, weaken economic condition of family) (9)
  Stay out until midnight (8) Due to favorable environment (availability of secluded area like forests, parent don’t care, allowances in castes and community) (9) Their future becomes dark (8)
  Don’t concentrate in their studies/don’t care about their studies (7) Too much love and trust of parents towards their children (3) Health gets worse (8)
  Don’t go to school regularly/bunk classes and schools (10) For fun (3) Have to bear physical/verbal punishments (6)
  Drop-out of school (6)   Feel humiliated, isolated, stressed and guilt (6)
  Form gangs (6)   Others don’t allow their children to socialize with them/avoid them (4)
  Get angry even on small matters (6)   Have to be involved in income generating activities (4)
  Tell lies (5)   
  Try to look and behave nicely in front of others (3)   
  Become arrogant (3)   
  Wear rough/indecent clothes (3)   
  Don’t care about daily activities (eating, cleaning) (3)   
  Play cards outside (2)   
  Walk around inebriated and reek of alcohol (4)   
Not paying attention to studies (drop-out, irregular school attendance, lack of interest in education) (Padhai ma dhyan nadine) Show problems in school (don’t go to school regularly/bunk school and classes/ don’t pay attention to their studies/don’t do homework/disrupt classroom by making noise) (11) Scarcity of teachers in the school (11) Despised, disgraced and mistreated by others (10)
(N = 11) Wander around in the neighborhood at the time of school (7) Lack of good family environment (parents are busy, parents cannot spare time for children, being orphan) (11) Get caught up in bad habits (addiction, stealing) (7)
  Get angry/irritated and talk back to others (6) Weak economic condition and not being able to fulfill the need and demands of children (9) Be bad influence to youngsters (4)
  Disobey family members and teachers (11) Spoilt by parents (too much love, fulfilling excessive demands) (8) Fail in exams/ruin education (5)
  Fight with friends or don’t care about them (6) Lack of awareness/education of parents (7) Have to be involved in labor work (4)
  Lie to parents and teachers (4) Bad influence of friends (6) Bleak future (3)
  Get caught up in bad habits (4) Lack of good environment in the community (3) Feel bad or depressed (3)
  Don’t speak properly with others (3) Exploitation of communication/technology (2) Make parents worried (2)
  Not afraid of teachers (2) Disciplining by teachers (2) Not stay at home for long (2)
  Donning undesirable fashion (long hair, earring) (2)   
  Vandalizing other’s properties (2)   
  Don’t take care about personal hygiene (2)   
Get angry easily and fight over small issues (Sano kurama risaune/jhagada garne) Become aggressive in small matter (7) Unfulfilled needs/desire (7) Hinders their studies (drop out, get expelled from school) (7)
(N = 7) Lack of interest in studies (6) Carelessness, illiteracy of the family members (6) Community view them and their family negatively (6)
  Speak rudely/talk back and argue with others (4) Lack of congenial family environment (discord, addictions, bad behavior of parents) (6) Increase in emotional problems (feeling anxious, tensed, thinking too much) (4)
  Not listening to other’s advice (3) Due to bad influence of friends (4) Increase in aggressive behaviors (4)
  Done undesirable fashion (wear earrings, color hair) (3) Parents don’t enrolled their children in schools (4) Have to bear reprimands from parents (3)
  Become involved in addictive behaviors (3) Because they are teenagers (3) Have to be involved in lawsuits (2)
  Form groups/gangs (3) Due to fights between friends (2) Affect others due to one’s actions (2)
   Emulating others (2) Discord in the family (2)
   Biological reasons (heredity, hormones) (2)  
   Early marriage (2)  
Disobedience (Atteri) Don’t listen to others (5) Poor economic condition (7) Affects their studies (7)
(N = 7) Become aggressive and quarrel with others (5) Spoilt (due to good economic condition and over indulgence) (4) No one will like them/view them negatively (6)
  Talk about indecent things (4) Parents don’t take good care of their children (4) scolding and beatings by other (3)
  Say whatever comes to mind (4) Parents beat children after drinking alcohol (3) Increase in negative thoughts (3)
  Lack of interest in studies/don’t do homework (4) Children try to emulate others (3) Don’t focus on their daily activities (2)
  Try to circumvent/make excuses for tasks given to them (4) Don’t do homework (2)  
  Are arrogant and brag (3) Heredity (2)  
  Steal (3)   
  Are not afraid of teachers (3)   
  Vandalize other’s properties (2)   
  Mischievous (2)   
  Are disruptive in classroom (2)   
  Get influenced easily (2)   
Stealing (Chorne) Steal (from home and community) (4) Weak economic condition of family (3) Could become a criminal (thief)/could be jailed (3)
(N = 3) Argue with parents/become disobedient (4) Family incapable of convincing them (3) Parents of friends don’t allow their children to socialize with them (3)
  Bunk school (3) Peer influence (2) Are disgraced by their family (2)
  Consume alcohol/cigarette (3) Parents don’t provide good care to the children (2) Community view them negatively (2)
  Argue with community members (2)   Have bleak future (2)
  Don’t concentrate on their studies (2)