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Table 2 Multivariate analysis of variance demonstrates differential relationships between enjoyment and psychosocial functioning over time

From: Adolescents’ reactions to participating in ethically sensitive research: a prospective self-report study

Group Variable Baseline M (SD) Follow up M (SD) F p η2
Enjoy baseline and follow up n = 1189 Life events 27.68 (5.03) 28.63 (5.41) 50.66 0.00 0.048
Self-esteem 30.69 (4.93) 30.25 (5.12) 12.21 0.00 0.011
Self-efficacy 30.29 (3.89) 30.66 (4.02) 10.01 0.00 0.009
Non-productive coping 48.88 (11.77) 50.05 (11.48) 14.01 0.00 0.013
Reference to others 50.66 (13.34) 50.93 (13.24) 0.49 0.49 0.000
Problem solving 66.84 (12.20) 66.24 (11.59) 3.57 0.06 0.003
Optimism 20.77 (4.27) 20.69 (4.53) 0.51 0.48 0.000
Alcohol use 1.91 (2.00) 2.66 (2.72) 147.46 0.00 0.113
Psych. distress 22.59 (6.04) 23.05 (6.26) 5.86 0.02 0.005
NSSI 0.84 (3.06) 1.12 (3.45) 8.96 0.00 0.008
Enjoy baseline, not follow up n = 223 Life events 28.17 (5.60) 28.97 (5.64) 6.61 0.01 0.033
Self-esteem 30.56 (4.86) 29.68 (5.21) 8.92 0.00 0.041
Self-efficacy 30.02 (4.02) 29.90 (3.94) 0.25 0.62 0.001
Non-productive coping 48.78 (11.55) 50.97 (11.42) 6.71 0.01 0.034
Reference to others 50.68 (12.61) 50.14 (13.10) 0.34 0.56 0.002
Problem solving 66.27 (10.78) 63.57 (11.50) 12.31 0.00 0.058
Optimism 20.17 (4.29) 19.30 (4.70) 9.55 0.00 0.044
Alcohol use 1.83 (2.07) 2.82 (2.90) 41.33 0.00 0.161
Psych. distress 22.80 (6.18) 23.71 (6.38) 2.82 0.09 0.013
NSSI 0.74 (2.94) 1.32 (3.74) 7.10 0.00 0.033
Not enjoy baseline, enjoy follow up n = 165 Life events 28.53 (6.09) 28.83 (6.04) 0.478 0.49 0.004
Self-esteem 30.09 (5.40) 30.00 (5.28) 0.06 0.80 0.000
Self-efficacy 29.14 (4.13) 29.79 (4.14) 3.75 0.06 0.024
Non-productive coping 49.47 (12.26) 50.56 (13.28) 1.29 0.26 0.009
Reference to others 48.87 (14.00) 49.25 (14.27) 0.12 0.73 0.001
Problem solving 64.82 (12.25) 64.82 (12.92) 0.00 1.00 0.000
Optimism 19.83 (4.04) 19.93 (4.46) 0.11 0.74 0.001
Alcohol use 2.26 (2.53) 3.16 (3.06) 16.70 0.00 0.096
Psych. distress 23.67 (7.34) 23.16 (6.43) 0.91 0.30 0.006
NSSI 1.47 (3.96) 1.67 (4.11) 0.62 0.43 0.004
Not enjoy baseline or follow up n = 189 Life events 28.66 (5.56) 29.85 (5.95) 10.12 0.00 0.063
Self-esteem 30.03 (4.70) 29.26 (5.30) 4.80 0.03 0.029
Self-efficacy 29.37 (4.70) 29.83 (4.20) 2.01 0.14 0.013
Non-productive coping 49.55 (11.46) 50.85 (12.26) 2.11 0.15 0.013
Reference to others 46.94 (14.20) 47.44 (13.64) 0.26 0.61 0.001
Problem solving 64.47 (14.17) 62.95 (13.13) 2.56 0.11 0.014
Optimism 19.71 (4.29) 19.33 (4.22) 1.77 0.19 0.010
Alcohol use 2.14 (2.24) 3.22 (3.13) 37.92 0.00 0.175
Psych. distress 22.23 (5.62) 23.68 (6.29) 8.55 0.00 0.047
NSSI 0.98 (3.31) 1.58 (4.02) 5.46 0.02 0.029