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Table 3 Dichotomized descriptive psychosocial and mental health characteristics as young adults (T4) in different bullying involved groups in adolescence (Total N = 1266)

From: The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood

Variables NNon-involved (n = 982) [%(n)] Being bullied (n = 158) [%(n)] Bully–victim (n = 39) [%(n)] Aggressive toward others (n = 87) [%(n)] Total sample (n = 1266) [%(n)]
Reduced functioning (Y/N) 40.6 (371) 55.4 (82) 44.4 (16) 44.7 (34) 39.7 (503)
Reduced leisure activities (Y/N) 6.3 (58) 10.1 (15) 2.8 (1) 13.2 (10) 6.6 (84)
Absence from school/work (Y/N) 7.9 (72) 8.8 (13) 13.9 (5) 10.5 (8) 7.7 (98)
Affected interpersonal relations (Y/N) 8.2 (75) 10.8 (16) 13.9 (5) 7.9 (6) 8.7 (102)
ASR total problem—high scorers (Y/N)a 8.1 (79) 17.1 (8) 20.5 (8) 19.5 (17) 8.8 (112)
ASR externalizing—high scorers (Y/N)a 9.3 (91) 13.9 (22) 23.1 (9) 20.7 (18) 11.1 (140)
ASR internalizing—high scorers (Y/N)a 8.2 (80) 16.5 (26) 23.1 (9) 18.4 (16) 10.3 (131)
ASR attention—high scorers (Y/N)a 9.9 (97) 12.7 (17) 23.1 (9) 19.5 (17) 11.1 (140)
ASR critical items—high scorers (Y/N)a 9.1 (89) 17.1 (27) 33.3 (13) 18.4 (16) 11.5 (145)
MFQ depressive symptoms—high scorers (Y/N)a 8.8 (86) 16.5 (26) 12.8 (5) 16.1 (14) 10.3 (131)
Received mental health help last year (Y/N) 28.2 (277) 39.2 (62) 28.2 (11) 35.6 (31) 30.1 (381)
Received mental health help earlier in life (Y/N) 33.1 (325) 48.7 (77) 38.5 (15) 41.4 (36) 35.8 (453)
Psychiatric hospitalization since T2 (Y/N) 1.5 (15) 5.1 (8) 7.7 (3) 9.2 (8) 2.7 (34)
  1. aDichotomized being a high-scorer (90th percentile) versus low-to-moderate-scorer on mental health outcomes in young adulthood