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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios from ordinal logistic regression comparing the different bullying involved groups with the non-involved group in adolescence with the outcome of psychosocial functioning in young adulthood (Total N = 1266)

From: The long-term effects of being bullied or a bully in adolescence on externalizing and internalizing mental health problems in adulthood

Non-involved vs. Being bullied (n = 158) Bully–victim (n = 39) Aggressive toward others (n = 87)
OR 95 CI P value OR 95 CI P value OR 95 CI P value
Reduced functioning 1.69 1.21–2.36 0.002 1.30 0.66–2.55 0.447 1.39 0.88–2.18 0.161
Reduced leisure activities 1.76 1.06–2.94 0.029 0.39 0.05–2.86 0.353 2.53 1.35–4.76 0.004
Absence from school/work 1.31 0.85–2.03 0.224 1.91 0.85–4.28 0.117 1.25 0.68–2.29 0.475
Affected interpersonal relations 1.27 0.82–1.95 0.285 0.93 0.36–2.41 0.879 0.93 0.49–1.76 0.819
  1. Adjustments made for gender and parent SES. Range on all variables = 1–4, with higher scores indicating negative outcomes