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Table 7 Means, standard deviations (in parentheses), and repeated measures ANOVA time effects for PPAP Group

From: Positive parenting: a randomised controlled trial evaluation of the Parents Plus Adolescent Programme in schools

Scale Time 1 (n = 70) Time 2 (n = 70) Time 3 (n = 42) ANOVA Partial η 2
SDQ
 TD 11.97 (5.96) 5.70 (4.13) 4.90 (3.28) F (2, 41) = 35.57, p < 0.001*** 0.63
 EMOT 3.93 (2.41) 0.986 (1.62) 0.837 (1.09) F (2, 41) = 31.47, p < 0.001*** 0.61
 HYPER 3.33 (2.28) 2.86 (1.84) 1.86 (1.61) F (2, 41) = 5.64, p = 0.007* 0.22
 CON 2.30 (1.61) 0.886 (1.09) 1.28 (1.22) F (2, 41) = 17.53, p < 0.001*** 0.46
 PEER 2.41 (2.26) 0.971 (1.44) 0.930 (1.24) F (2, 41) = 11.51, p < 0.001*** 0.36
 PRO 6.90 (2.53) 8.33 (1.63) 8.23 (1.70) F (2, 41) = 2.88, p = 0.068 0.12
PSI
 PSI total 77.97 (14.69) 65.87 (14.39) 65.86 (16.92) F (2, 41) = 34.44, p < 0.001*** 0.62
 PD 28.17 (7.65) 21.59 (6.36) 21.60 (6.68) F (2, 41) = 27.48, p < 0.001*** 0.58
 DC 30.71 (7.66) 23.21 (6.25) 23.22 (7.24) F (2, 41) = 18.86, p < 0.001*** 0.55
 P-CDI 26.26 (6.34) 21.07 (5.01) 21.02 (4.94) F (2, 41) = 17.16, p < 0.001*** 0.46
KPSS
 KPSS total 14.23 (3.37) 16.89 (2.36) 16.58 (2.74) F (2, 41) = 20.09, p < 0.001*** 0.50
  1. SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, TD Total Difficulties, EMOT Emotional Symptoms, HYPER Hyperactivity, CON Conduct Problems, PEER Peer Problems, PRO prosocial behavior, PSI Parenting Stress Index, PSI total total stress, PD parental distress, DC Difficult Child, P-CDI Parent–Child dysfunctional interaction, KPSS Kansas Parenting Satisfaction Scale, KPSS total KPSS total parenting satisfaction
  2. * Significant at p < 0.05, *** significant at p < 0.001