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Table 3 The adjusted associations of IQ and behavior problems with physical abuse (n = 265)

From: Cognitive and behavioral risk factors for child physical abuse among Chinese children: a multiple-informant study

  Maternal minor physical abuse Paternal minor physical abuse Maternal severe physical abuse Paternal severe physical abuse
Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI)
VIQ 1.07 (1.02, 1.13)* 0.93 (0.76, 1.13) 1.07 (0.61, 1.87) 1.14 (0.99, 1.33)
PIQ 0.87 (0.59, 1.27) 0.88 (0.70, 1.12) 0.78 (0.37, 1.63) 1.03 (0.80, 1.33)
S_EXTER 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) 1.15 (0.93, 1.43) 0.88 (0.54, 1.45) 0.59 (0.52, 0.66)**
M_EXTER 1.33 (0.79, 2.25) 1.36 (0.89, 2.07) 1.38 (1.09, 1.74)* 1.47 (1.29, 1.69)**
T_EXTER 1.11 (0.91, 1.35) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.45 (1.10, 1.91)* 1.61 (1.44, 1.81)**
S_INTER 1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 0.85 (0.60, 1.21) 1.41 (0.96, 2.06) 1.20 (0.57, 2.51)
M_INTER 1.02 (0.68, 1.75) 1.13 (0.78, 1.64) 0.77 (0.63, 0.95)* 0.97 (0.66, 1.41)
T_INTER 0.81 (0.68, 0.97) 0.86 (0.64, 1.15) 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) 0.94 (0.75, 1.16)
  1. OR odds ratio. OR values indicate a 10 point increase in IQ or behavior problems was associated with the change in the likelihood of being physically maltreated. IQ (range: 73–149) and behavioral (range: 35–92) independent variables are treated as continuous variables. 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval. Models were adjusted for child gender, age, and socioeconomic status and clustered at location level to correct standard errors
  2. PIQ performance intelligence quotient; VIQ verbal intelligence quotient; S_EXTER child self-report externalizing behavior; M_EXTER mother-report externalizing behavior; T_EXTER teacher-report externalizing behavior; S_INTER child self-report internalizing behavior; M_INTER mother-report internalizing behavior; T_INTER teacher-report internalizing behavior
  3. p < 0.05; * p < 0.0125; ** p < 0.001