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Table 5 Unadjusted and adjusted associations between student resilience survey subscales and other scales

From: The student resilience survey: psychometric validation and associations with mental health

Unadjusted analysis Emotional problems (n = 5561) Behavioural problems (n = 5595) Global subjective distress (n = 5655) Impact of health on daily life (n = 5439) Health today (0–100) (n = 5621)
Student resilience survey subscales Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P
Fixed effects
 Intercept 15.06 (0.34) <.0001 9.72 (0.23) <.0001 36.07 (0.65) <.0001 9.84 (0.14) <.0001 71.78 (1.81) <.0001
 Family connection −0.08 (0.02) <.0001 −0.16 (0.01) <.0001 −0.46 (0.04) <.0001 −0.07 (0.01) <.0001 −0.83 (0.11) <.0001
 School connection 0.02 (0.01) 0.216 −0.03 (0.01) <.0001 −0.20 (0.03) <.0001 −0.00 (0.01) 0.773 0.22 (0.07) 0.003
 Community connection −0.06 (0.02) 0.001 −0.01 (0.01) 0.563 −0.12 (0.03) <.0001 −0.02 (0.01) 0.009 −0.20 (0.09) 0.026
 Participation in home and school life −0.03 (0.02) 0.095 −0.02 (0.01) 0.040 −0.08 (0.03) 0.012 0.01 (0.01) 0.217 0.00 (0.09) 0.992
 Participation in community life −0.01 (0.02) 0.516 0.03 (0.01) 0.024 0.05 (0.03) 0.112 0.00 (0.01) 0.493 −0.39 (0.09) <.0001
 Self-esteem −0.42 (0.03) <.0001 −0.14 (0.02) <.0001 −0.80 (0.05) <.0001 −0.12 (0.01) <.0001 −1.46 (0.14) <.0001
 Empathy 0.52 (0.03) <.0001 −0.12 (0.02) <.0001 0.48 (0.05) <.0001 0.12 (0.01) <.0001 0.38 (0.15) 0.012
 Problem solving −0.22 (0.02) <.0001 −0.10 (0.01) <.0001 −0.35 (0.04) <.0001 −0.05 (0.01) <.0001 −0.36 (0.10) <.0001
 Goals and aspirations −0.10 (0.03) 0.001 0.04 (0.02) 0.050 −0.13 (0.06) 0.029 −0.01 (0.01) 0.460 −0.37 (0.16) 0.024
 Peer support −0.06 (0.01) <.0001 0.01 (0.00) 0.013 −0.04 (0.01) 0.001 0.02 (0.00) <.0001 0.12 (0.03) <.0001
Variance components
 Residual variance 3.21 (0.03)   2.24 (0.02)   6.11 (0.06)   1.30 (0.01)   17.49 (0.17)  
 School-level 0.72 (0.09)   0.38 (0.06)   0.92 (0.14)   0.23 (0.04)   2.22 (0.43)  
  1. Each column represents a new regression model. All models were tested using multilevel linear regression
  2. aAdjusted analysis are controlling for gender, school level (primary/secondary), special education needs, English as an additional language and free school meals
Adjusted analysisa Emotional problems (n = 5488) Behavioural problems (n = 5522) Global subjective distress (n = 5584) Impact of health on daily life (n = 5371) Health today (0–100) (n = 5548)
Student resilience survey subscales Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P Estimate (SE) P
Fixed effects
 Intercept 18.87 (0.46) <.0001 8.87 (0.31) <.0001 36.29 (0.87) <.0001 10.55 (0.19) <.0001 70.66 (2.46) <.0001
 Family connection −0.08 (0.02) <.0001 −0.16 (0.01) <.0001 −0.47 (0.04) <.0001 −0.07 (0.01) <.0001 −0.83 (0.11) <.0001
 School connection 0.01 (0.01) 0.476 −0.04 (0.01) <.0001 −0.20 (0.03) <.0001 −0.01 (0.01) 0.245 −0.23 (0.08) 0.002
 Community connection −0.06 (0.02) <.0001 −0.01 (0.01) 0.625 −0.13 (0.03) <.0001 −0.02 (0.01) 0.008 −0.17 (0.09) 0.052
 Participation in home and school life −0.03 (0.02) 0.055 −0.03 (0.01) 0.014 −0.09 (0.03) 0.005 0.01 (0.01) 0.420 −0.04 (0.09) 0.630
 Participation in community life 0.01 (0.02) 0.640 0.03 (0.01) 0.011 0.07 (0.03) 0.036 0.01 (0.01) 0.183 −0.31 (0.09) 0.001
 Self-esteem −0.36 (0.03) <.0001 −0.14 (0.02) <.0001 −0.76 (0.05) <.0001 −0.11 (0.01) <.0001 −1.37 (0.14) <.0001
 Empathy 0.45 (0.03) <.0001 −0.09 (0.02) <.0001 0.44 (0.05) <.0001 0.11 (0.01) <.0001 0.31 (0.15) 0.047
 Problem solving −0.20 (0.02) <.0001 −0.10 (0.01) <.0001 −0.34 (0.04) <.0001 −0.05 (0.01) <.0001 −0.32 (0.10) 0.001
 Goals and aspirations −0.07 (0.03) 0.024 0.03 (0.02) 0.114 −0.09 (0.06) 0.109 −0.01 (0.01) 0.594 −0.37 (0.16) 0.024
 Peer support −0.08 (0.01) <.0001 0.02 (0.00) <.0001 0.05 (0.01) <.0001 −0.02 (0.00) <.0001 −0.13 (0.03) <.0001
Variance components
 Residual variance 3.15 (0.03)   2.22 (0.21)   6.07 (0.06)   1.29 (0.01)   17.42 (0.17)  
 School-level 0.54 (0.08)   0.27 (0.06)   0.79 (0.15)   0.18 (0.04)   2.03 (0.44)  
  1. Each column represents a new regression model. All models were tested using multilevel linear regression
  2. aAdjusted analysis are controlling for gender, school level (primary/secondary), special education needs, English as an additional language and free school meals