Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the breastfed and non-breastfed participants, and of participants excluded from analyses

From: Breastfeeding is associated with enhanced learning abilities in school-aged children

Characteristics Ever-breastfed participants (n = 516) Never-breastfed participants (n = 352) p value Excluded participants (n = 221) p value
Age (years), mean (SD) 9.1 (0.7) 9.0 (0.7) 0.337 9.1 (0.7) 0.041
Sex (male), N (%) 267 (51.7) 186 (52.8) 0.751 118 (53.4) 0.749
Annual family income >$2500, N (%) 311 (60.9) 229 (65.4) 0.173 81 (59.6) 0.480
Paternal education, years, mean (SD) 13.8 (2.2) 13.8 (2.2) 0.928 13.2 (2.3) 0.001
Maternal education 13.3 (2.0) 13.1 (2.1) 0.118 12.8 (2.2) 0.043
Region    0.098   <0.001
 Urban 220 (42.6) 128 (36.4)   115 (52.0)  
 Industrial 214 (41.5) 152 (43.2)   56 (25.3)  
 Rural 82 (15.9) 72 (20.5)   50 (22.6)  
Birth weight 3.3 (0.5) 3.2 (0.5) <0.001 3.2 (0.5) 0.886
Maternal age at birth 28.3 (3.8) 28.4 (3.8) 0.875 28.9 (4.9) 0.245
Maternal IQ 108.1 (11.4) 106.4 (11.9) 0.039 108.4 (10.1) 0.886
Gestational age at birth 39.8 (1.2) 39.7 (1.6) 0.241 39.8 (0.8) 0.213
  1. SD standard deviation, IQ intelligence quotient