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Table 4 Association between dietary behaviours and mental health among adolescents

From: Dietary behaviour, psychological well-being and mental distress among adolescents in Korea

Weighted % Well-being outcomes Mental distress outcomes
Perceived health Perceived happiness Sleep satisfaction Perceived stress Depression
Poor Good p-value Unhappy Happy p-value Insufficient Sufficient p-value Less Much p-value No Yes p-value
Breakfast
 0 day 14.9 16.8 14.1 < .0001 17.2 13.7 < .0001 15.5 13.1 < .0001 13.7 16.8 < .0001 14.3 16.7 < .0001
 1 day 6.0 7.0 5.6   6.9 5.5   6.3 5.0   5.6 6.6   5.6 6.9  
 2 days 7.4 8.4 7.0   8.4 6.9   7.7 6.4   6.9 8.2   6.9 8.6  
 3 days 7.5 8.0 7.3   8.5 7.0   7.8 6.8   7.2 8.1   7.3 8.0  
 4 days 6.5 7.3 6.2   6.6 6.5   6.8 5.7   6.4 6.7   6.3 7.1  
 5 days 10.7 11.7 10.3   11.2 10.4   11.2 9.1   10.5 10.9   10.5 11.2  
 6 days 8.6 8.3 8.8   8.3 8.8   8.9 7.9   8.8 8.4   8.7 8.6  
 7 days 38.4 32.6 40.8   33.0 41.2   35.8 46.0   40.9 34.3   40.3 32.9  
Soft drinks
 I did not drink 24.2 24.5 24.1 < .0001 24.3 24.1 < .0001 23.8 25.2 < .0001 24.1 24.4 < .0001 24.8 22.4 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 48.7 47.0 49.4   46.7 49.8   48.7 49.0   49.7 47.1   49.4 46.7  
 3–4 times/week 18.9 19.1 18.7   19.3 18.6   19.1 18.3   18.8 19.0   18.4 20.3  
 5–6 times/week 4.3 4.7 4.2   4.9 4.0   4.5 3.9   4.0 4.8   4.0 5.2  
 Once/day 2.0 2.3 1.9   2.4 1.9   2.0 2.0   1.8 2.4   1.9 2.5  
 Twice/day 0.9 1.1 0.8   1.1 0.8   1.0 0.7   0.8 1.0   0.8 1.2  
 3+ times/day 0.9 1.3 0.8   1.3 0.8   1.0 0.8   0.7 1.3   0.7 1.5  
Highly caffeinated drink
 I did not drink 86.2 83.4 87.3 < .0001 83.0 87.8 < .0001 85.2 89.2 < .0001 88.4 82.5 < .0001 88.1 80.7 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 9.9 11.2 9.3   11.4 9.1   10.4 8.2   8.7 11.8   8.9 12.7  
 3–4 times/week 2.2 2.8 2.0   3.1 1.8   2.5 1.5   1.6 3.2   1.8 3.4  
 5–6 times/week 0.8 1.0 0.7   1.1 0.6   0.8 0.6   0.6 1.0   0.6 1.4  
 Once/day 0.5 0.8 0.4   0.8 0.4   0.6 0.2   0.3 0.8   0.4 1.0  
 Twice/day 0.2 0.4 0.1   0.3 0.1   0.2 0.1   0.1 0.3   0.1 0.4  
 3+ times/day 0.2 0.3 0.2   0.3 0.2   0.2 0.2   0.2 0.4   0.1 0.5  
Sweetened drinks
 I did not drink 15.4 15.1 15.5 < .0001 15.5 15.4 < .0001 14.4 18.2 < .0001 16.0 14.5 < .0001 16.3 12.8 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 43.2 41.3 43.9   41.5 44.0   42.6 44.7   44.6 40.8   44.2 40.3  
 3–4 times/week 26.4 26.4 26.5   26.6 26.4   27.0 24.7   26.1 27.1   25.8 28.5  
 5–6 times/week 8.0 8.7 7.7   8.5 7.7   8.4 6.6   7.4 8.9   7.6 9.2  
 Once/day 4.3 4.9 4.0   4.5 4.1   4.5 3.5   3.8 5.0   3.9 5.2  
 Twice/day 1.5 1.9 1.4   1.8 1.4   1.7 1.1   1.2 2.1   1.3 2.3  
 3+ times/day 1.2 1.7 1.0   1.5 1.0   1.2 1.1   0.9 1.7   1.0 1.8  
Fast foods
 I did not eat 22.8 21.9 23.2 < .0001 22.3 23.1 < .0001 21.8 25.9 < .0001 23.4 22.0 < .0001 23.7 20.3 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 60.4 59.1 61.0   58.7 61.3   60.6 60.0   61.2 59.1   61.2 58.4  
 3–4 times/week 13.7 15.1 13.1   14.9 13.0   14.4 11.5   12.8 15.1   12.7 16.5  
 5–6 times/week 1.9 2.3 1.7   2.4 1.6   2.0 1.5   1.7 2.2   1.6 2.6  
 Once/day 0.7 1.0 0.6   1.0 0.6   0.7 0.7   0.6 1.0   0.6 1.2  
 Twice/day 0.2 0.3 0.2   0.3 0.2   0.2 0.2   0.2 0.3   0.2 0.4  
 3+ times/day 0.2 0.3 0.2   0.4 0.2   0.3 0.2   0.2 0.4   0.1 0.6  
Fruits (excluding fruit juices)
 I did not eat 8.6 11.7 7.4 < .0001 11.8 7.0 < .0001 9.1 7.5 < .0001 7.6 10.5 < .0001 8.3 9.7 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 28.7 32.1 27.4   32.3 27.0   30.0 25.1   27.7 30.4   28.3 29.9  
 3–4 times/week 27.9 26.5 28.4   26.6 28.5   27.9 27.8   28.8 26.4   28.2 26.9  
 5–6 times/week 11.5 10.4 12.0   10.4 12.1   11.3 12.2   11.9 11.0   11.8 10.8  
 Once/day 12.6 10.8 13.4   10.6 13.6   12.2 14.0   13.1 11.8   12.8 12.2  
 Twice/day 6.1 5.0 6.6   4.5 6.9   5.6 7.7   6.4 5.7   6.3 5.8  
 3+ times/day 4.4 3.4 4.8   3.7 4.8   3.9 5.9   4.6 4.2   4.3 4.7  
Vegetable (excluding Kimchi)
 I did not eat 3.8 5.6 3.1 < .0001 5.1 3.1 < .0001 4.0 3.0 < .0001 3.1 5.0 < .0001 3.5 4.5 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 15.5 19.4 13.9   18.5 14.0   16.5 12.7   14.7 16.8   15.0 17.0  
 3–4 times/week 24.3 26.0 23.6   25.6 23.6   24.8 22.8   24.4 24.0   24.4 23.8  
 5–6 times/week 14.2 13.3 14.5   13.6 14.4   14.0 14.5   14.5 13.6   14.4 13.5  
 Once/day 13.0 12.0 13.4   12.5 13.3   12.9 13.4   13.4 12.4   13.0 13.0  
 Twice/day 14.9 12.4 15.9   12.9 15.9   14.6 15.8   15.3 14.3   15.2 14.3  
 3+ times/day 14.3 11.3 15.5   11.7 15.7   13.1 17.9   14.5 14.0   14.5 13.9  
Milk
 I did not drink 16.2 20.7 14.4 < .0001 19.7 14.4 < .0001 17.2 13.2 < .0001 14.4 19.1 < .0001 15.5 18.1 < .0001
 1–2 times/week 22.6 25.3 21.5   24.4 21.6   23.8 19.2   21.9 23.7   22.2 23.7  
 3–4 times/week 20.2 19.8 20.3   19.8 20.4   20.3 19.8   20.5 19.7   20.2 20.1  
 5–6 times/week 14.3 13.1 14.7   13.4 14.7   14.0 15.1   14.8 13.4   14.6 13.2  
 Once/day 16.0 12.9 17.2   13.7 17.1   15.3 18.1   16.9 14.4   16.5 14.7  
 Twice/day 6.2 4.8 6.7   5.1 6.7   5.6 7.8   6.6 5.5   6.3 5.9  
 3+ times/day 4.6 3.3 5.2   3.8 5.0   3.9 6.8   4.9 4.2   4.7 4.4  
  1. All values are presented as weighted %