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Table 2 Externalising behaviour in military and non-military connected children

From: A systematic review of wellbeing in children: a comparison of military and civilian families

Study   Physical fighting Carrying a weapon   
Reinhardt et al. [30]a AOR Overall (95% CI) 1.69* (1.27, 2.25)    
Parent military
 Male AOR (95% CI) 1.74* (1.15, 2.65)    
 Female AOR (95% CI) 1.65* (1.11, 2.45)    
Sullivan et al. [27]b AOR Overall (95% CI) 1.67* (1.62, 1.71) 1.90* (1.83, 1.97)   
  1. CI confidence interval, AOR adjusted odds ratio. For AOR the reference category was children of civilian parents. Male and female refers to the gender of the child
  2. * Confidence intervals indicate a statistically significant odds or adjusted odds ratio
  3. aAOR adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, location substance use, depressive symptoms, and bullying victimization
  4. bAOR adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity and grade
  5. cAOR adjusted for race/ethnicity, grade, maternal education, academic achievement, binge drinking, drug use and media use. Reinhardt et al. [30] assessed violent behaviour using the following item: “how many times were you in a physical fight in the last 12 months?”. Reed et al. [26] assessed violent behaviour using the following items: “during the past 12 months how many times were you in a fight on school property?” and “during the past 30 days, how many times did you carry a weapon, such as a gun, knife or club on school property?”. Sullivan et al. [27] assessed in-school violent behaviour with items including: “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you been in a fight?”, “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you carried a gun?”, and “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you carried any other weapon (such as a knife or club)?”
  6. dDifference between military and deployed significant at p < 0.05
   8th grade 10th/12th grade 8th grade 10th/12th
Reed et al. [26]c Military parent
 Male AOR (95% CI) 1.27 (0.92, 1.76) 1.38* (1.02, 1.85) 1.18 (0.69, 2.00) 1.08d (0.74, 1.59)
 Female AOR (95% CI) 0.96 (0.60, 1.55) 2.16* (1.15, 2.85) 1.32 (0.64, 2.75) 2.03* (1.15, 3.59)
Deployed parent
 Male AOR (95% CI) 1.57* (1.00, 2.47) 2.01* (1.39, 2.90) 0.86 (0.39, 1.94) 2.27* (1.48, 3.47)
 Female AOR (95% CI) 1.29 (0.65, 2.58) 1.99* (1.09, 3.65) 1.62 (0.78, 3.43) 1.64 (0.77, 3.51)
  1. CI confidence interval, AOR adjusted odds ratio. For AOR the reference category was children of civilian parents. Male and female refers to the gender of the child
  2. * Confidence intervals indicate a statistically significant odds or adjusted odds ratio
  3. aAOR adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, location substance use, depressive symptoms, and bullying victimization
  4. bAOR adjusted for sex, race/ethnicity and grade
  5. cAOR adjusted for race/ethnicity, grade, maternal education, academic achievement, binge drinking, drug use and media use. Reinhardt et al. [30] assessed violent behaviour using the following item: “how many times were you in a physical fight in the last 12 months?”. Reed et al. [26] assessed violent behaviour using the following items: “during the past 12 months how many times were you in a fight on school property?” and “during the past 30 days, how many times did you carry a weapon, such as a gun, knife or club on school property?”. Sullivan et al. [27] assessed in-school violent behaviour with items including: “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you been in a fight?”, “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you carried a gun?”, and “during the past 12 months, how many times on school property have you carried any other weapon (such as a knife or club)?”
  6. dDifference between military and deployed significant at p < 0.05