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Table 5 Association between earthquake exposures and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents

From: Earthquake exposures and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents from Phulpingdanda village, Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Statement Depression (mean ± SD) PTSD (mean ± SD) Resilience (mean ± SD)
Child seriously injured
 Yes 4.67 ± 3.79 11.00 ± 6.00 31.33 ± 0.58
 No 6.71 ± 3.53 8.02 ± 5.72 31.17 ± 2.58
Family member/friend seriously injured or killed
 Yes 8.59 ± 4.30* 11.76 ± 6.43* 31.00 ± 2.06
 No 5.87 ± 2.93 6.80 ± 4.85 31.24 ± 2.69
Witnessed injury or death
 Yes 7.67 ± 2.66 11.17 ± 1.83 31.00 ± 2.76
 No 6.50 ± 3.62 7.84 ± 5.91 31.20 ± 2.52
Was separated from parents or primary caretaker(s)
 Yes
 No
Home destroyed, badly damaged by earthquakes
 Yes
 No
Saw neighborhood destroyed or badly damaged
 Yes
 No
Pet: separated from, lost, hurt or killed
 Yes 12.00 ± N/A 15.00 ± N/A 34.00 ± N/A
 No 6.52 ± 3.50 8.05 ± 5.70 31.13 ± 2.51
Belongings, clothes/toys destroyed by earthquake
 Yes 6.43 ± 3.25 8.70 ± 5.29 31.48 ± 2.16
 No 7.13 ± 4.35 6.63 ± 6.77 30.31 ± 3.28
Trapped/difficulty evacuating
 Yes 7.17 ± 3.37 8.33 ± 7.31 31.50 ± 2.43
 No 6.55 ± 3.58 8.14 ± 5.61 31.14 ± 2.55
Isolated
 Yes 9.00 ± N/A 10.00 ± N/A 29.00 ± N/A
 No 6.57 ± 3.56 8.13 ± 5.76 31.21 ± 2.52
In other crowded shelter
 Yes 7.70 ± 3.91 8.05 ± 6.64 31.25 ± 2.36
 No 6.10 ± 3.27 8.21 ± 5.32 31.14 ± 2.62
Exposed to violence or looting
 Yes 9.00 ± N/A 5.00 ± N/A 30.00 ± N/A
 No 6.57 ± 3.56 8.21 ± 5.76 31.20 ± 2.54
Displaced from home
 Yes
 No
Experienced shelter/displacement centers
 Yes 6.73 ± 3.64 8.02 ± 5.61 31.09 ± 2.57
 No 5.50 ± 2.43 9.50 ± 7.12 32.00 ± 1.90
Transferred to new school because of earthquakes
 Yes 5.80 ± 4.27 10.20 ± 6.38 32.80 ± 1.30
 No 6.68 ± 3.51 7.98 ± 5.69 31.04 ± 2.56
Helped in rescue/recovery efforts
 Yes 6.11 ± 3.55 8.67 ± 5.32 31.89 ± 1.81
 No 6.82 ± 3.56 7.95 ± 5.93 30.89 ± 2.72
Family member served as rescue/recovery worker
 Yes 6.42 ± 3.51 8.55 ± 4.77 31.29 ± 2.77
 No 6.81 ± 3.62 7.77 ± 6.60 31.06 ± 2.28
Parent currently unemployed
 Yes 11.00 ± N/A 9.00 ± N/A 31.00 ± N/A
 No 6.54 ± 3.52 8.15 ± 5.77 31.18 ± 2.54
Previous earthquake experience
 Yes 5.83 ± 4.12 6.33 ± 5.54 31.67 ± 2.16
 No 6.70 ± 3.51 8.36 ± 5.76 31.13 ± 2.57
Past major loss or trauma
 Yes 9.00 ± 1.41 9.00 ± 4.24 32.50 ± 2.12
 No 6.53 ± 3.57 8.13 ± 5.79 31.13 ± 2.53
Additional loss (livestock)
 Yes 6.45 ± 3.28 8.65 ± 5.18 31.95 ± 1.76
 No 6.69 ± 3.69 7.93 ± 6.01 30.81 ± 2.75
  1. *p-value < 0.05