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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for sociodemographic, family, school and peer covariates, stratified by gender

From: Gender-specific substance use patterns and associations with individual, family, peer, and school factors in 15-year-old Portuguese adolescents: a latent class regression analysis

Covariates Boys (n = 680; 43.8%) Girls (n = 873; 56.2%) χ2/t p
Age 15.46 (0.34) 15.47 (0.34) − 0.472 0.637
Family Affluence Scale score (range 0–9) 6.04 (1.77) 5.93 (1.86) 1.174 0.241
Family structure 0.338 0.561
 Living with both parents 76.8% 78%
 Other 23.2% 22%
Communication with mother 3.322 0.19
 Good 72.2% 72.2%
 Poor 20% 22.8%
 Do not have or see 3.1% 1.9%
Communication with father 74.985 < 0.001
 Good 59.4% 38.6%
 Poor 30.4% 51.4%
 Do not have or see 7.1% 7.9%
Good school satisfaction 70% 79.8% 18.789 < 0.001
Good perceived academic achievement 45.3% 42% 1.713 0.191
Bullying (at least once) 35.3% 20.9% 41.201 < 0.001
Victimisation (at least once) 37.5% 27.9% 17.209 < 0.001
Fighting (at least once) 32.2% 15% 68.732 < 0.001
Psychological symptomsa (range 4–20) 7.36 (3.42) 8.885 (3.77) − 8.2923 < 0.001
Somatic symptomsb (range 4–20) 5.78 (2.5) 7.231 (3.36) − 9.7211 < 0.001
  1. Significant values are shown in italics
  2. Results presented in percentage or mean (standard deviation). χ2—Chi square test value. t—T test statistic. p—p-value
  3. a4-item checklist (feeling low or depressed, feeling irritable or bad tempered, feeling nervous, sleeping difficulties in the past 6 months); higher score meaning more symptoms
  4. b4-item checklist (headache, backache, stomachache, dizziness, in the past 6 months); higher score meaning more symptoms