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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: a prospective population-based study

  n Sample with data on ASD traits
n = 3938
n ASD diagnoses sample
n = 56
n ADHD diagnoses sample
n = 194
Child characteristics
 Gender (% boys) 3938 50.0 56 85.7 194 63.9
 Gestational age at birth (weeks) 3926 39.85 (1.81) 56 39.17 (2.57) 194 39.74 (2.17)
 Ethnicity 3933   56   194  
  Dutch % 2771 70.5 43 76.8 121 62.4
  Other Western % 358 9.1 3 5.4 20 10.3
  Non-Western % 804 20.4 10 17.9 53 27.3
 CBCL 1.5–5 total score 3665 18.11 (13.28) 51 29.91 (20.80) 176 32.10 (18.41)
 BRIEF-P (executive functioning) total score 3901 85.28 (15.65) 56 108.07 (26.72) 189 104.35 (19.85)
 Inhibition 3886 22.22 (5.09) 56 28.69 (7.55) 187 28.82 (6.39)
 Shifting 3930 13.67 (3.34) 56 18.36 (5.67) 193 15.47 (4.34)
 Emotional control 3932 14.24 (3.48) 56 18.20 (5.18) 193 17.27 (4.46)
 Working memory 3892 21.55 (4.79) 56 27.01 (8.96) 191 26.38 (6.46)
 Planning/organization 3927 13.61 (2.96) 56 15.80 (4.15) 192 16.42 (3.59)
 SRS (ASD traits) scorea 3938 0.21 (0.23) 54 0.94 (0.64) 169 0.50 (0.43)
 TRF (ADHD traits) score 2272 3.00 (4.73) 34 7.50 (7.56) 116 6.97 (6.66)
Maternal characteristics
 Education level 3830   54   192  
  Low % 76 2.0 1 1.9 10 5.2
  Medium % 1153 30.1 22 40.7 73 38.0
  High % 2601 67.9 31 57.4 109 56.8
 BSI (psychopathology) score 3612 0.62 (1.01) 50 0.95 (1.29) 174 1.24 (1.60)
  1. Values are mean total scores (standard deviation) unless stated otherwise
  2. ADHD attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASD autism spectrum disorder, BRIEF-P Brief Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Preschool version, BSI Brief Symptom Inventory, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist, SRS Social Responsiveness Scale, TRF Teacher Report Form
  3. aMean item score. Sample with data on ADHD traits: n = 2749; overlap between sample with data on ASD traits and sample with data on ADHD traits: n = 2272