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Table 2 The association between executive functioning and ASD traits (n = 3938)

From: Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: a prospective population-based study

  Mother-reported ASD traits
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β 95% CI p β 95% CI p β 95% CI p
Executive functioning total 0.45 0.43–0.48 < .001 0.40 0.37–0.43 < .001 0.33 0.30–0.37 < .001
Inhibition 0.38 0.35–0.41 < .001 0.31 0.28–0.35 < .001 0.22 0.19–0.26 < .001
Shifting 0.33 0.30–0.36 < .001 0.29 0.26–0.32 < .001 0.22 0.19–0.25 < .001
Emotional control 0.30 0.26–0.33 < .001 0.27 0.23–0.30 < .001 0.17 0.14–0.20 < .001
Working memory 0.41 0.38–0.44 < .001 0.34 0.31–0.38 < .001 0.27 0.23–0.30 < .001
Planning/organizing 0.36 0.33–0.39 < .001 0.29 0.26–0.33 < .001 0.21 0.18–0.24 < .001
  1. Parameter estimates are standardized betas with 95% confidence intervals and significance values. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for covariates: gender, gestational age, ethnicity, age at ASD traits questionnaire, maternal education, and maternal psychopathology. Model 3 is adjusted for the covariates in model 2 and baseline emotional and behavioral problems (parent-rated CBCL total problems at age 3)