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Table 4 The association between executive functioning and ADHD traits (n = 2749)

From: Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: a prospective population-based study

  Teacher-reported ADHD traits
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β 95% CI p β 95% CI p β 95% CI p
Executive functioning total 0.18 0.14–0.22 < .001 0.12 0.08–0.16 < .001 0.12 0.07–0.16 < .001
Inhibition 0.25 0.21–0.29 < .001 0.20 0.16–0.24 < .001 0.21 0.16–0.25 < .001
Shifting − 0.03 − 0.07–0.01 .108 − 0.07 − 0.11 to − 0.03 < .001 − 0.11 − 0.15 to − 0.07 < .001
Emotional control 0.04 0.003− 0.08 .037 0.02 − 0.02–0.06 .272 -0.01 − 0.05–0.03 .657
Working memory 0.21 0.17− 0.25 < .001 0.15 0.11–0.19 < .001 0.15 0.11–0.19 < .001
Planning/organizing 0.17 0.13− 0.20 < .001 0.11 0.07–0.15 < .001 0.09 0.05–0.14 < .001
  1. Parameter estimates are standardized betas with 95% confidence intervals and significance values. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for covariates: gender, gestational age, ethnicity, age at teacher-reported ADHD traits questionnaire, maternal education, and maternal psychopathology. Model 3 is adjusted for the covariates in model 2 and baseline emotional and behavioral problems (parent-rated CBCL total problems at age 3)