Skip to main content

Table 5 The association between executive functioning and ADHD diagnoses (n = 4000; diagnoses n = 194)

From: Executive functioning and neurodevelopmental disorders in early childhood: a prospective population-based study

  ADHD diagnoses
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p OR 95% CI p
Executive functioning total 3.18 2.70–3.74 < .001 2.83 2.37–3.38 < .001 2.32 1.89–2.85 < .001
Inhibition 7.33 5.59–9.61 < .001 6.15 4.61–8.20 < .001 4.59 3.34–6.32 < .001
Shifting 3.10 2.29–4.20 < .001 2.30 1.67–3.17 < .001 1.37 0.97–1.95 .077
Emotional control 5.57 4.10–7.55 < .001 4.24 3.08–5.84 < .001 2.59 1.81–3.71 < .001
Working memory 4.73 3.68–6.08 < .001 3.82 2.92–4.99 < .001 2.64 1.96–3.56 < .001
Planning/organizing 7.73 5.46–10.93 < .001 5.74 3.97–8.30 < .001 3.56 2.38–5.33 < .001
  1. Parameter estimates are odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and significance values. Model 1 is unadjusted
  2. Model 2 is adjusted for covariates: gender, gestational age, ethnicity, age at mother-reported ADHD symptoms interview, maternal education, and maternal psychopathology. Model 3 is adjusted for the covariates in model 2 and baseline emotional and behavioral problems (parent-rated CBCL total problems at age 3)