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Table 3 Impact of child emotional and behavioural difficulties on educational outcomes

From: Impact of child emotional and behavioural difficulties on educational outcomes of primary school children in Ethiopia: a population-based cohort study

ExposuresModelsChild EBD at T0Child EBD at T1
Drop-out at T1 (n = 1662)
Odds ratio (95% confidence interval; CI)
Drop-out at T2 (n = 1293)
Odds ratio (95% CI)
Absenteeism at T2 (n = 1130)
Risk ratio (95% CI)
Academic achievement at T2 (n = 1054)
β coefficient (95% CI)
SDQ sub-scales (total scores)
 Emotional problemCrude1.05 (0.96, 1.15)1.06 (0.95, 1.19)1.02 (1.00, 1.03)**− 0.11 (− 0.51, 0.30)
Adjusteda1.03 (0.93, 1.13)1.01 (0.89, 1.14)1.03 (1.01, 1.04)**− 0.13 (− 0.55, 0.31)
 Conduct difficultyCrude1.10 (1.00, 1.20)**1.05 (0.93, 1.18)0.99 (0.97, 1.00)− 0.41 (− 0.82, 0.00)**
Adjusteda1.05 (0.95, 1.16)1.01 (0.88, 1.16)1.01 (0.99, 1.02)− 0.55 (− 1.01, − 0.10)**
 Hyperactivity problemCrude1.05 (0.98, 1.12)0.99 (0.91, 1.09)1.02 (1.00, 1.03)**− 0.15 (− 0.46, 0.16)
Adjusteda1.02 (0.94, 1.10)0.98 (0.88, 1.109)1.03 (1.02, 1.04)**− 0.11 (− 0.45, 0.23)
 Peer relationship problemCrude1.03 (0.94, 1.12)0.99 (0.86, 1.14)1.00 (0.98, 1.02)− 0.21 (− 0.67, 0.25)
Adjusteda1.02 (0.93, 1.12)0.97 (0.83, 1.13)1.02 (1.00, 1.04)**− 0.12 (− 0.63, 0.39)
SDQ full scale
 Total scoreCrude1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.01 (0.97, 1.05)1.00 (1.00, 1.01)− 0.09 (− 0.22, 0.04)
Adjusteda1.01 (0.97, 1.03)0.99 (0.95, 1.04)1.01 (1.01, 1.02)**− 0.10 (− 0.24, 0.04)
 High score (≥ 14)Crude0.87 (0.53, 1.41)1.48 (0.75, 2.86)1.23 (1.13, 1.34)**− 2.44 (− 5.04, − 0.16)
Adjusteda0.71 (0.41, 1.23)1.17 (0.56, 2.44)1.36 (1.24, 1.48)**− 2.90 (− 5.76, − 0.05)**
  1. T0 assessment time-point 0, T1 assessment time-point 1, T2 assessment time-point 2
  2. ** The association is significant at 95% CI and P value less than 0.05
  3. aMaternal age, marital status, maternal and paternal level of literacy, SES, paternal substance use, negative life event, maternal CMD, child sex, birth order and nutritional status