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Table 3 Subjective well-being (SWB) of left-behind children (LBC) with different characteristics

From: Subjective well-being of left-behind children: a cross-sectional study in a rural area of eastern China

CharacteristicsN%Positive affectNegative affectLife satisfaction
MeanSDPMeanSDPMeanSDP
Parental migration status
 Father migrated14238.93.61.30.2162.30.90.1924.60.80.268
 Mother migrated143.82.50.9 2.31.0 4.30.7 
 Both migrated16244.43.21.2 2.30.9 4.70.9 
 Past migrated4712.93.51.4 2.10.5 4.81.0 
Type of caregivers
 Single-parent16244.43.51.30.2822.20.80.1164.60.90.628
 Grandparents12333.73.31.3 2.30.8 4.60.8 
 Uncles/aunts4913.43.21.2 2.30.9 4.80.9 
 Brothers/sisters123.32.91.3 2.00.4 4.90.9 
 By oneself195.23.51.2 2.71.2 4.51.1 
Contact frequency with parents
 1 per 30 days or more4311.83.01.20.0032.51.10.1614.20.9< 0.001
 1 per 15–30 days7119.53.31.3 2.30.8 4.50.8 
 1 per 4–7 days10729.33.21.2 2.20.8 4.60.8 
 1 per 2–3 days6918.93.61.3 2.10.8 4.80.8 
 Daily7520.63.61.4 2.30.9 5.00.8 
Frequency of parents visiting children
  ≥ 1 year328.83.51.50.1252.31.00.4954.51.00.028
 Every 6 months to 1 year6918.93.11.1 2.20.9 4.61.0 
 Every 3–6 months9124.93.31.1 2.40.8 4.60.8 
 Every 1–3 months6217.03.41.4 2.30.8 4.50.9 
 Every month11130.43.51.4 2.20.9 4.90.8 
  1. LBC left-behind children, SD standard deviation, SWB subjective well-being