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Table 3 Maternal character traits predicting child externalizing problems in the total population and boys and girls respectively. Linear regression

From: Maternal temperament and character: associations to child behavior at the age of 3 years

  Total population Boys Girls
Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value
Maternal character trait     
Self-directedness (SD) − 0.35 (− 0.45–− 0.26) < 0.001 − 0.42 (− 0.56– − 0.28) < 0.001 − 0.29 (− 0.43– − 0.16) < 0.001
EPDS 0.88 (− 0.26–2.02) 0.132 − 0.30 (− 1.95–1.35) 0.721 2.11 (0.54–3.67) 0.008
Life events 4.31 (2.94–5.67) < 0.001 6.16 (4.37–7.95) < 0.001 1.13 (− 0.97–3.24) 0.291
Divorce 0.45 (− 0.72–1.62) 0.452 0.46 (− 1.18–2.10) 0.583 0.40 (− 1.26–2.05) 0.637
Unemployment 2.77 (1.60–3.93) < 0.001 2.03 (0.48–3.58) 0.011 3.84 (2.07–5.61) < 0.001
Parental immigration − 0.09 (− 1.34–1.17) 0.893 − 0.22 (− 1.81–1.38) 0.791 − 0.18 (− 2.26–1.90) 0.864
Cooperativeness (CO) − 0.25 (− 0.37– − 0.13) < 0.001 − 0.24 (− 0.41– − 0.07) 0.006 − 0.28 (− 0.44–− 0.11) 0.001
EPDS 1.90 (0.79–3.01) 0.001 1.19 (− 0.40–2.77) 0.143 2.72 (1.18–4.25) 0.001
Life events 4.49 (3.10–5.87) < 0.001 6.29 (4.46–8.12) < 0.001 1.38 (− 0.74–3.50) 0.202
Divorce 0.28 (− 0.91–1.47) 0.640 0.15 (− 1.53–1.82) 0.864 0.42 (− 1.26–2.09) 0.625
Unemployment 2.88 (1.70–4.07) < 0.001 2.09 (0.51–3.67) 0.010 4.05 (2.27–5.84) < 0.001
Parental immigration 0.19 (− 1.08–1.45) 0.775 − 0.01 (–1.64–1.61) 0.988 0.16 (− 1.93–2.24) 0.883
Self-transcendence (ST) 0.01 (− 0.10–0.12) 0.840 0.08 (− 0.07–0.24) 0.291 − 0.05 (− 0.21–0.10) 0.491
EPDS 2.09 (0.97–3.20) < 0.001 1.27 (− 0.33–2.87) 0.119 3.00 (1.46–4.54) < 0.001
Life events 4.42 (3.02–5.82) < 0.001 6.17 (4.33–8.02) < 0.001 1.40 (− 0.75–3.56) 0.202
Divorce − 0.00 (− 1.19–1.19) 0.996 − 0.09 (− 1.76–1.59) 0.918 0.06 (− 1.61–1.73) 0.943
Unemployment 2.79 (1.60–3.98) < 0.001 1.99 (0.40–3.59) 0.014 3.89 (2.10–5.69) < 0.001
Parental immigration 0.18 (− 1.10–1.47) 0.778 − 0.14 (− 1.78–1.51) 0.872 0.26 (− 1.84–2.37) 0.805
  1. CI confidence interval, EPDS  Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multivariate linear regression. Dependent variables: CBCL externalizing scores. Independent variables: Maternal character traits, EPDS, life events, divorce, unemployment, parental immigration status