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Table 4 Maternal temperament traits predicting child internalizing problems in the total population and boys and girls respectively. Linear regression

From: Maternal temperament and character: associations to child behavior at the age of 3 years

  Total population Boys Girls
Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value Adjusted B
(95.0 % CI)
p-value
Maternal temperament trait     
Novelty seeking (NS) 0.04 (− 0.02–0.11) 0.157 0.05 (− 0.03–0.14) 0.228 0.04 (− 0.05–0.12) 0.402
 EPDS 1.27 (0.63–1.91) < 0.001 0.38 (− 0.52–1.28) 0.410 2.28 (1.38–3.18) < 0.001
 Life events 1.77 (0.96–2.57) < 0.001 2.94 (1.90–3.98) < 0.001 − 0.06 (− 1.31–1.20) 0.927
 Divorce − 0.49 (− 1.17–0.20) 0.161 − 0.25 (− 1.20–0.70) 0.607 − 0.81 (− 1.79–0.17) 0.104
 Unemployment 1.27 (0.59–1.96) < 0.001 0.97 (0.07–1.87) 0.036 1.78 (0.73–2.84) 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.43 (− 0.30–1.16) 0.251 0.43 (− 0.50–1.36) 0.362 0.55 (− 0.69–1.78) 0.386
Harm avoidance (HA) 0.11 (0.06–0.16) < 0.001 0.12 (0.05–0.18) < 0.001 0.10 (0.04–0.17) 0.003
 EPDS 0.94 (0.29–1.59) 0.005 0.05 (− 0.86–0.96) 0.913 1.95 (1.03–2.87) < 0.001
 Life events 1.80 (1.01–2.59) < 0.001 2.97 (1.94–4.00) < 0.001 − 0.03 (− 1.27–1.22) 0.968
 Divorce − 0.49 (− 1.17–0.18) 0.154 − 0.23 (− 1.17–0.72) 0.637 − 0.84 (− 1.82–0.13) 0.089
 Unemployment 1.28 (0.60–1.96) < 0.001 0.93 (0.04–1.83) 0.041 1.83 (0.78–2.88) 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.43 (− 0.30–1.16) 0.250 0.45 (− 0.47–1.37) 0.337 0.49 (− 0.74–1.71) 0.436
Reward dependence (RD) − 0.08 (− 0.16– − 0.01) 0.036 − 0.08 (− 0.20– 0.04) 0.171 − 0.08 (− 0.19– 0.03) 0.136
 EPDS 1.30 (0.66–1.94) < 0.001 0.42 (− 0.49–1.32) 0.365 2.29 (1.39–3.19) < 0.001
 Life events 1.80 (1.00–2.60) < 0.001 2.97 (1.93–4.01) < 0.001 − 0.02 (− 1.28–1.23) 0.971
 Divorce − 0.46 (− 1.15–0.22) 0.186 − 0.26 (− 1.21–0.69) 0.588 − 0.75 (− 1.74–0.23) 0.132
 Unemployment 1.29 (0.61–1.98) < 0.001 1.00 (0.10–1.91) 0.030 1.78 (0.73–2.84) 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.42 (− 0.32–1.15) 0.265 0.40 (− 0.53–1.32) 0.397 0.53 (− 0.70–1.77) 0.394
Persistence (PS) 0.09 (− 0.05–0.22) 0.210 0.06 (− 0.13–0.26) 0.507 0.12 (− 0.08–0.31) 0.240
 EPDS 1.23 (0.59–1.87) < 0.001 0.34 (− 0.56–1.25) 0.457 2.23 (1.33–3.13) < 0.001
 Life events 1.75 (0.95–2.55) < 0.001 2.93 (1.88–3.98) < 0.001 − 0.07 (− 1.33–1.18) 0.911
 Divorce − 0.53 (− 1.22–0.15) 0.127 − 0.33 (− 1.28–0.63) 0.502 − 0.81 (− 1.79–0.17) 0.103
 Unemployment 1.27 (0.58–1.95) < 0.001 0.97 (0.07–1.87) 0.036 1.78 (0.73–2.83) 0.001
 Parental immigration 0.41 (− 0.32–1.15) 0.270 0.38 (− 0.54–1.31) 0.418 0.59 (− 0.64–1.82) 0.348
  1. CI confidence interval, EPDS  Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multivariate linear regression. Dependent variables: CBCL internalizing scores. Independent variables: Maternal temperamental traits, EPDS, life events, divorce, unemployment, parental immigration status