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Table 2 Descriptive statistics (percentages of categorical variables, means and standard deviations of continuous variables) for the overall sample and the three subgroups

From: Using the biopsychosocial model for identifying subgroups of detained juveniles at different risk of re-offending in practice: a latent class regression analysis approach

  ‘Low risk – psychopathic traits’
(N = 37) class 3
‘Medium risk—adverse environment’
(N = 141) class 1
‘High risk—externalizing’
(N = 45) class 2
Overall sample
(N = 223)
%   %   %   %  
Etnicity
 Dutch 27.7   22.2   48.6   30  
 Western 3.5   2.2   5.4   3.6  
 Non-western 68.8   75.6   45.9   66.4  
Socioeconomic status
 Low 31.2   33.3   10.8   28.3  
 Middle 66.7   64.4   67.6   66.4  
 High 2.1   2.2   21.6   5.4  
Criminal friends
 Yes 71.6   88.9   56.8   72.6  
 No 28.4   11.1   43.2   27.4  
Substance use
 Non-user 14.2   0.0   21.6   12.6  
 Recreational user 18.4   17.8   0.0   15.2  
 Multiple user 1
substance
28.4   73.3   40.5   39.5  
 Multiple user > 1
substance
39.0   8.9   37.8   32.7  
  M SD M SD M SD M SD
Age 18.66 1.70 18.13 1.38 18.29 2.13 18.49 1.73
PT Interpersonal dimension 10.11 3.76 10.40 2.72 12.76 3.95 10.61 3.72
PT Affective dimension 10.36 3.18 8.93 2.53 12.16 3.70 10.37 3.29
PT Behavior dimension 12.52 3.44 11.22 2.91 12.54 3.40 12.26 3.36
Internalizing problems 1.27 1.60 0.96 1.54 1.35 1.93 1.22 1.64
Externalizing problems 2.03 1.95 2.82 2.08 4.03 2.65 2.52 2.22
Attention problems 3.45 2.40 3.38 2.44 3.14 1.99 3.39 2.33
Treatment motivation 26.77 6.79 26.82 6.33 21.05 4.47 25.83 6.70
Trauma 39.04 7.45 43.71 14.05 48.54 15.46 41.56 11.23
HR rest 70.85 9.44 74.38 12.63 71.36 11.62 71.65 10.57
PEP rest 97.57 19.62 97.35 19.14 101.22 20.66 98.13 19.66
Lg RSA rest 1.85 0.24 1.81 0.27 1.85 0.19 1.84 .235
HR reactivity − 2.93 2.40 − 3.41 2.80 − 2.64 2.92 − 2.98 2.57
PEP reactivity 0.41 2.75 − 0.16 2.52 − 0.39 3.59 .162 2.87
RSA reactivity − 5.44 21.63 3.13 18.87 − 9.92 22.46 − 4.46 21.55
Cortisol 9.94 3.57 9.73 2.47 8.82 2.69 9.71 3.25
Testosterone 289.65 77.08 271.56 63.22 281.03 80.14 284.57 75.06
  1. PT psychopathic traits, HR heart rate, PEP pre-ejection period, Lg transformed logarithmically, RSA respiratory sinus arrhythmia
  2. NB: The descriptives in Table 2 show the mean differences in the sample. Due to sample fluctuations these differences may not be reliable for the population. In order to interpret relevant differences at population level we focused on the differences that had a standardized score of 1.8 (see Fig. 2)