Skip to main content

Table 1 Session contents

From: A controlled trial of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy-based strategies for insomnia among in-school adolescents in southern Nigeria

Session Topic(s) Content
1 Introduction and setting ground rules
Importance of sleep (Psychoeducation-1)
Facilitator and participants introduced each other
Group rules agreed including confidentiality
Overview of the 5 sessions
Discussion of the importance of sleep for good physical health, mental health, and optimum daily function including better concentration and attention and the potential benefits for a student. This was contrasted with the negative consequences of poor sleep
Discussed what is adequate amount of sleep for adolescents?
2 Physiology of sleep (Psychoeducation-2) Review of previous session
Discussed how normal sleep occurs including sleep drive (role of Adenosine), and Circadin Rhythm (role of Melatonin)
Discussed impact of caffeine on blocking Adenosine and sleep drive, and role of light in blocking Melatonin
3 Sleep hygiene
Sleep restriction
Stimulus control
Review of previous session
Discussed components of sleep hygiene and how they contribute to improving sleep
Extended previous discussion on avoiding caffeine after lunchtime due to blocking effect on sleep drive
Extended previous discussion on light blocking effect on melatonin and linked it to avoiding electronic gadgets at bedtime and in bed
Discussed sleep restriction in terms of avoiding long daytime nap because it reduces bedtime sleep drive
Discussed stimulus control as part of improving the sleep environment but acknowledged the impracticality for those who need to do schoolwork in their bedroom
4 Relaxation techniques and managing bed time worries Reviewed previous session
Effect of stress on sleep and how to reduce stress
Types of relaxation techniques—deep slow breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and positive imagery
Managing bedtime rumination on worries—by recounting positive experiences in the day and focusing on these to distract from worries “count your blessings” [18]
How to make relaxation a habit by practising relaxation techniques throughout the day
5 Revision and relapse prevention Review of all key messages from sessions 1 to 4
Checking that participants are practising the techniques and troubleshooting any difficulties
Relapse Prevention
Formal ending of the intervention