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Table 1 Characteristics of included literature

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of exercise on depression in adolescents

Name Country Population Mean age
(year)
Sample size
N (female %)
Exercise group Control group Outcome Effect of exercise and follow-up points
Type Exercise program duration
(week)
Exercise session duration
(min)
Frequency
(sessions/week)
Brown et al. (1992) United States 1. Diagnosed at mental health center;
2. Depression
15.60 27 (41%) Aerobic exercise
(jogging)
9 45 3 Conventional treatment BDI Significant
▲: 11; : 5
No adverse events
Roshan et al. (2011) Iran 1. Diagnosed at hospital;
2. Depression
16.87 24 (100%) Aerobic exercise
(walking in water)
6 30 3 Conventional treatment HAMD Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Hughes et al. (2013) United States 1. Diagnosed at outpatient clinic;
2. Depression
17.00 26 (42%) Aerobic exercise
(jogging/power bike)
12 30 3 Conventional treatment CDRS-R 1. Not significant at 3/12 weeks and significant at 6/9 weeks
2. Follow-up: 24/48 weeks
3. ▲: 0; : 0
4. No adverse events
Carter et al. (2015) United Kingdom 1. Diagnosed at mental health center;
2. Depression
15.40 87 (78%) Aerobic exercise
(aerobics)
6 45 3 Conventional treatment CDI-2 1. Not significant
2. Follow-up: 24 weeks (significant)
3. ▲: 8; : 14
4. No adverse events
Wunram et al. (2017a) Germany 1. Diagnosed at inpatient department;
2. Depression
15.80 44 (77%) Whole-body muscle vibration training 6 30 4 Conventional treatment DIKJ 1. Not significant
2. Follow-up: 14 /26 weeks (the second of which was significant)
3. ▲: 3; : 6
4. No adverse events
Wunram et al. (2017b) Germany 1. Diagnosed at inpatient department;
2. Depression
15.90 43 (72%) Aerobic exercise
(power bike)
6 30 4 Conventional treatment DIKJ 1. Not significant
2. Follow-up: 14 /26 weeks (the second of which was significant)
3. ▲: 3; : 6
4. No adverse events
Hilyer et al. (1982) United States 1. Recruited at school for young offenders;
2.Depressive symptoms
17.00 60 (-) Resistance + aerobic exercise 20 90 3 Conventional treatment BDI Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
MacMahon et al. (1988a) United States 1. Recruited at juvenile detention center;
2.Depressive symptoms
15.60 39 (-) Aerobic exercise
(aerobics)
12 40 3 Regular activities BDI Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
MacMahon et al. (1988b) United States 1. Recruited at juvenile detention center;
2.Depressive symptoms
17.20 30 (-) Aerobic exercise
(aerobics)
12 40 3 Regular activities BDI Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Bonhauser et al. (2005) Chile 1. 9th grade public junior high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
15.53 198 (52%) Aerobic exercise 40 90 3 Regular activities HADS Not significant
▲: 8; : 7
No adverse events
Mohammadi. (2011a) Iran 1. Public high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
16.60 60 (-) Aerobic exercise
(group aerobic exercise)
8 75 3 Conventional treatment BDI Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Mohammadi. (2011b) Iran 1. Public high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
16.60 60 (-) Aerobic exercise
(personal aerobic exercise)
8 75 3 Conventional treatment BDI Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Jeong et al. (2005) Korea 1. Girls’ high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
16.00 40 (100%) Aerobic exercise
(aerobic dance)
12 45 3 Conventional treatment SCL-90-R Significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Khalsa et al. (2012) United States 1. 11/12th grade senior high school students in rural school;
2. Depressive symptoms
16.80 121 (42%) Self-designed yoga 11 30 2 Regular activities POMS-SF Not significant
▲: 3; : 17
No adverse events
Noggle et al. (2012) United States 1. 11/12th grade senior high school students in rural school;
2. Depressive symptoms
17.20 51 (57%) Kripalu Yoga 10 40 3 Regular activities POMS-SF Not significant
▲: 0; : 0
No adverse events
Velasquez et al. (2015) Colombia 1. Public junior high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
13.20 125 (-) Satyananda Yoga 12 120 2 Regular activities SDQ Not significant
▲: 11; : 0
No adverse events
Butzer et al. (2017) United States 1. 7th grade public junior high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
12.64 209 (63%) Kripalu Yoga 16 45 2 Regular activities BRUMS 1. Significant
2. Follow-up: 24/48 weeks
3. ▲: 4; : 0;
4. No adverse events
Costigan et al. (2016a) Australia 1. Public junior high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
15.65 43 (-) Aerobic exercise
(aerobic running and jumping)
8 8 3 Regular activities K-10 Not significant
▲: 2; : 0;
No adverse events
Costigan et al. (2016b) Australia 1. Public junior high school students;
2. Depressive symptoms
15.55 44 (-) Resistance + aerobic exercise 8 8 3 Regular activities K-10 Not significant
▲: 1; : 0;
No adverse events
  1. BDI  Beck Depression Inventory, HAMD Hamilton Depression Scale, CDRS- R Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised; CDI-2 Children’s Depression Inventory-2, DIKJ Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche (German version of CDI-2), HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, SCL-90-R Symptom Checklist-90 -Revised; POMS-SF Profile of Mood States-Short Form, BRUMS Brunel University Mood Scale, SDQ Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, K10 Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Number of dropouts in experiment group: ▲; Number of dropouts in control group: . Exercise intensity: 60–70% maximum heart rate (HRmax); Self-selected intensity, ≤ 80% HRmax; 120–160 beats/min;  ≥ 85% HRmax
  2. “a” represents the first comparison. b represents the second comparison.