China Internet Information Center. The 43rd statistical report on the development of internet in China. http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201902/t20190228_70645.htm. Accessed 1 May 2019.
Panova T, Carbonell X. Is smartphone addiction really an addiction? J Behav Addict. 2018;7(2):252–9.
Brand M, Young KS, Laier C, Wölfling K, Potenza MN. Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;71:252–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.08.033.
Kim SE, Kim JW, Jee YS. Relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity in Chinese international students in Korea. J Behav Addict. 2015;4(3):200–5.
Lemola S, Perkinson-Gloor N, Brand S, Dewald-Kaufmann JF, Grob A. Adolescents’ electronic media use at night, sleep disturbance, and depressive symptoms in the smartphone age. J Youth Adolesc. 2015;44(2):405–18.
Wang P, Zhao M, Wang X, Xie X, Wang Y, Lei L. Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: the mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of the need to belong. J Behav Addict. 2017;6(4):708–17.
Marchant A, Hawton K, Stewart A, Montgomery P, Singaravelu V, et al. A systematic review of the relationship between internet use, self-harm and suicidal behaviour in young people: the good, the bad and the unknown. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0181722.
Grant JE, Lust K, Chamberlain SR. Problematic smartphone use associated with greater alcohol consumption, mental health issues, poorer academic performance, and impulsivity. J Behav Addict. 2019;8(2):335–42.
Müller M, Montag C. The relationship between Internet addiction and alcohol consumption is influenced by the smoking status in male online video gamers. Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2017;14(1):34–43.
Yang X, Zhou Z, Liu Q, Fan C. Mobile phone addiction and adolescents’ anxiety and depression: the moderating role of mindfulness. J Child Fam Stud. 2019;28(3):822–30.
Gao T, Li J, Zhang H, Gao J, Kong Y, Hu Y, Mei S. The influence of alexithymia on mobile phone addiction: the role of depression, anxiety and stress. J Affect Disord. 2018;225:761–6.
Przepiorka A, Blachnio A. Time perspective in Internet and Facebook addiction. Comput Hum Behav. 2016;60:13–8.
Davis RA. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Comput Hum Behav. 2001;17(2):187–95.
Brand M, Wegmann E, Stark R, Müller A, Wölfling K, Robbins TW, Potenza MN. The Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model for addictive behaviors: update, generalization to addictive behaviors beyond Internet-use disorders, and specification of the process character of addictive behaviors. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019;104:1–10.
Chittaro L, Vianello A. Time perspective as a predictor of problematic Internet use: a study of Facebook users. Personal Individ Differ. 2013;55(8):989–93.
Gámez-Guadix M, Calvete E. Assessing the relationship between mindful awareness and problematic Internet use among adolescents. Mindfulness. 2016;7(6):1281–8.
Billieux J. Problematic use of the mobile phone: a literature review and a pathways model. Curr Psychiatry Rev. 2012;8(4):299–307.
Acuff SF, Soltis KE, Dennhardt AA, Borsari B, Martens MP, Murphy JG. Future so bright? Delay discounting and consideration of future consequences predict academic performance among college drinkers. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017;25(5):412.
King DL, Delfabbro PH. The cognitive psychology of Internet gaming disorder. Clin Psychol Rev. 2014;34(4):298–308.
Komnenić D, Filipović S, Vukosavljević-Gvozden T. Assessing maladaptive cognitions related to online gaming: proposing an adaptation of online cognitions scale. Comput Hum Behav. 2015;51:131–9.
Wigfield A. Expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation: a developmental perspective. Educ Psychol Rev. 1994;6(1):49–78.
Park CJ, Hyun JS, Kim JY, Lee KE. Impact of personal time-related factors on smart phone addiction of female high school students. In: Proceedings of the world congress on engineering and computer science, vol. 1. 2014. p. 1–5.
Liu LQ, Min G, Yue ST, Cheng LS. The influence of mobile phone addiction on procrastination: a moderated mediating model. J Ergon. 2018;8(232):2.
Vredenburg K, O’Brien E, Krames L. Depression in college students: personality and experiential factors. J Counsel Psychol. 1988;35(4):419–25.
Zimbardo PG, Boyd JN. Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric. J Personal Soc Psychol. 1999;77(6):1271–88.
Lahey BB. Public health significance of neuroticism. Am Psychol. 2009;64(4):241–56.
Peterka-Bonetta J, Sindermann C, Elhai JD, Montag C. Personality associations with smartphone and internet use disorder: a comparison study including links to impulsivity and social anxiety. Front Public Health. 2019;7:127.
Gleeson JF, Rawlings D, Jackson HJ, Mcgorry PD. Agreeableness and neuroticism as predictors of relapse after first-episode psychosis: a prospective follow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005;193(3):160–9.
Davies S, Filippopoulos P. Changes in psychological time perspective during residential addiction treatment: a mixed-methods study. J Groups Addict Recov. 2015;10(3):249–70.
Hoppmann CA, Infurna FJ, Ram N, Gerstorf D. Associations among individuals’ perceptions of future time, individual resources, and subjective well-being in old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015;72(3):388–99.
Baltes PB, Mayer KU. The Berlin aging study: aging from 70 to 100. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Diaconu-Gherasim LR, Bucci CM, Giuseppone KR, Brumariu LE. Parenting and adolescents’ depressive symptoms: the mediating role of future time perspective. J Psychol. 2017;151(7):685–99.
Boumosleh JM, Jaalouk D. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students—a cross sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(8):e0182239.
Alhassan AA, Alqadhib EM, Taha NW, Alahmari RA, Salam M, Almutairi AF. The relationship between addiction to smartphone usage and depression among adults: a cross sectional study. BMC Psychiatry. 2018;18(1):148.
Montag C, Sindermann C, Becker B, Panksepp J. An affective neuroscience framework for the molecular study of Internet addiction. Front Psychol. 1906;2016:7.
Elhai JD, Yang H, Montag C. Cognitive-and emotion-related dysfunctional coping processes: transdiagnostic mechanisms explaining depression and anxiety’s relations with problematic smartphone use. Current Addiction Reports 2019. p. 1–8.
Bronfenbrenner U. Lewinian space and ecological substance. J Soc Issues. 1977;33(4):199–212.
Barnett E, Spruijt-Metz D, Unger JB, Rohrbach LA, Sun P, Sussman S. Bidirectional associations between future time perspective and substance use among continuation high-school students. Subst Use Misuse. 2013;48(8):574–80.
Kim J, Hong H, Lee J, Hyun MH. Effects of time perspective and self-control on procrastination and Internet addiction. J Behav Addict. 2017;6(2):229–36.
Zentsova NI, Leonov SV. Comparative characteristics of time perspective of professional athletes and drug addicted people. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2013;78:340–4.
Brown KW, Ryan RM. The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J Personal Soc Psychol. 2003;84(4):822.
Kabat-Zinn J. Mindfulness-based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clin Psychol Sci Pract. 2003;10(2):144–56.
Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment. 2006;13(1):27–45.
Felder JN, Laraia B, Coleman-Phox K, Bush N, Suresh M, Thomas M, Prather AA, et al. Poor sleep quality, psychological distress, and the buffering effect of mindfulness training during pregnancy. Behav Sleep Med. 2018;16(6):611–24.
Mathad MD, Rajesh SK, Pradhan B. Spiritual well-being and its relationship with mindfulness, self-compassion and satisfaction with life in baccalaureate nursing students: a correlation study. J Relig Health. 2019;58(2):554–65.
De Jong M, Peeters F, Gard T, Ashih H, Doorley J, Walker R, Hoge EA, et al. A randomized controlled pilot study on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for unipolar depression in patients with chronic pain. J Clin Psychiatry. 2018. https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.15m10160.
Elices M, Soler J, Feliu-Soler A, Carmona C, Tiana T, Pascual JC, Álvarez E, et al. Combining emotion regulation and mindfulness skills for preventing depression relapse: a randomized-controlled study. Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul. 2017;4(1):13.
Hunter L. Mindfulness training can reduce depression and anxiety among nurses. Evid Based Nurs. 2017;20(2):57.
Lindsay EK, Creswell JD. Mechanisms of mindfulness training: monitor and Acceptance Theory (MAT). Clin Psychol Rev. 2017;51:48–59.
Brown KW, Ryan RM, Creswell JD. Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychol Inq. 2007;18(4):211–37.
Andrews MC, Kacmar KM, Kacmar C. The mediational effect of regulatory focus on the relationships between mindfulness and job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Career Dev Int. 2014;19(5):494–507.
Higgins ET. Beyond pleasure and pain. Am Psychol. 1997;52(12):1280.
Elhai JD, Levine JC, O’Brien KD, Armour C. Distress tolerance and mindfulness mediate relations between depression and anxiety sensitivity with problematic smartphone use. Comput Hum Behav. 2018;4:477–84.
Hundt NE, Kimbrel NA, Mitchell JT, Nelson-Gray RO. High BAS, but not low BIS, predicts externalizing symptoms in adults. Personal Individ Differ. 2008;44(3):565–75.
Khang H, Woo HJ, Kim JK. Self as an antecedent of mobile phone addiction. Int J Mob Commun. 2011;10(1):65–84.
Lyu H, Huang X. Development and validation of future time perspective scale for adolescents and young adults. Time Soc. 2016;25(3):533–51.
Dong-Ping LI. Future time perspective, goal orientation, social connectedness and undergraduates’ academic adjustment. Psychol Dev Educ. 2008 (in Chinese).
Gang D, Houchao L, Psychology FO, University S. The relationship of adolescents’ future time perspective and academic achievement: the mediation effect of time management disposition. J Psychol Sci. 2017 (in Chinese).
Leung L. Linking psychological attributes to addiction and improper use of the mobile phone among adolescents in Hong Kong. J Child Media. 2008;2(2):93–113.
Han L, Geng J, Jou M, Gao F, Yang H. Relationship between shyness and mobile phone addiction in chinese young adults: mediating roles of self-control and attachment anxiety. Comput Hum Behav. 2017;76:363–71.
Qing-Qi L, Dong-Jing Z, Xiu-Juan Y, Chen-Yan Z, Cui-Ying F, Zong-Kui Z. Perceived stress and mobile phone addiction in chinese adolescents: a moderated mediation model. Comput Hum Behav. 2018;87:247–53.
Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33(3):335–43.
Gong X, Xie XY, Xu R, Luo YJ. Psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of DASS-21 in Chinese college students. Chin J Clin Psychol. 2010 (in Chinese).
Greco LA, Baer RA, Smith GT. Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: development and validation of the child and adolescent mindfulness measure (CAMM). Psychol Assess. 2011;23(3):606.
de Bruin EI, Zijlstra BJ, Bögels SM. The meaning of mindfulness in children and adolescents: further validation of the Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Measure (CAMM) in two independent samples from the Netherlands. Mindfulness. 2014;5(4):422–30.
Liu QQ, Zhou ZK, Yang XJ, Kong FC, Niu GF, Fan CY. Mobile phone addiction and sleep quality among chinese adolescents: a moderated mediation model. Comput Hum Behav. 2017;72:108–14.
Zhou ZK, Liu QQ, Niu GF, Sun XJ, Fan CY. Bullying victimization and depression in Chinese children: a moderated mediation model of resilience and mindfulness. Personal Individ Differ. 2017;104:137–42.
MacKinnon DP. Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. New York: Taylor & Francis Group; 2008.
Hayes AF. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2013.
De Bilde J, Vansteenkiste M, Lens W. Understanding the association between future time perspective and self-regulated learning through the lens of self-determination theory. Learn Instr. 2011;21(3):332–44.
Miller RB, Brickman SJ. A model of future-oriented motivation and self-regulation. Educ Psychol Rev. 2004;16(1):9–33.
Carelli MG, Olsson CJ. Neural correlates of time perspective. In: Time perspective theory; review, research and application; Cham: Springer; 2015. p. 231–42.
Montag C, Becker M. Psychological and neuroscientific advances to understand internet use disorder. Neuroforum. 2019;25(2):99–107.
Montag C. The neuroscience of smartphone/social media usage and the growing need to include methods from ‘Psychoinformatics’. In: Information systems and neuroscience. Cham: Springer. 2019. p. 275–83.
Gindrat AD, Chytiris M, Balerna M, Rouiller EM, Ghosh A. Use-dependent cortical processing from fingertips in touchscreen phone users. Curr Biol. 2015;25(1):109–16.
Franck E, Vanderhasselt MA, Goubert L, Loeys T, Temmerman M, De Raedt R. The role of self-esteem instability in the development of postnatal depression: a prospective study testing a diathesis-stress account. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2016;50:15–22.
Hankin BL, Abela JR, editors. Development of psychopathology: a vulnerability-stress perspective. New York: Sage Publications; 2005.
Gao T, Xiang YT, Zhang H, Zhang Z, Mei S. Neuroticism and quality of life: multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression. Psychiatry Res. 2017;258:457–61.
Shumaker SA, Brownell A. Toward a theory of social support: closing conceptual gaps. J Soc Issues. 1984;40(4):11–36.
Skinner BF. Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan; 1953. p. 45–128.
Chen J, Liang Y, Mai C, Zhong X, Qu C. General deficit in inhibitory control of excessive smartphone users: evidence from an event-related potential study. Front Psychol. 2016;7:511.
Bajaj B, Pande N. Mediating role of resilience in the impact of mindfulness on life satisfaction and affect as indices of subjective well-being. Personal Individ Differ. 2016;93:63–7.
Meiklejohn J, Phillips C, Freedman ML, Griffin ML, Biegel G, Roach A, Isberg R, et al. Integrating mindfulness training into K-12 education: fostering the resilience of teachers and students. Mindfulness. 2012;3(4):291–307.
Agnew R, Brezina T, Wright JP, Cullen FT. Strain, personality traits, and delinquency: extending general strain theory. Criminology. 2002;40(1):43–72.
Wittmann M, Peter J, Gutina O, Otten S, Kohls N, Meissner K. Individual differences in self-attributed mindfulness levels are related to the experience of time and cognitive self-control. Personal Individ Differ. 2014;64:41–5.
Cluver L, Orkin M. Cumulative risk and AIDS-orphanhood: interactions of stigma, bullying and poverty on child mental health in South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69(8):1186–93.
Sapacz M, Rockman G, Clark J. Are we addicted to our cell phones? Comput Hum Behav. 2016;57:153–9.
Matousek RH, Dobkin PL, Pruessner J. Cortisol as a marker for improvement in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016;16(1):13–9.
Davis TJ, Morris M, Drake MM. The moderation effect of mindfulness on the relationship between adult attachment and wellbeing. Personal Individ Differ. 2016;96:115–21.
Lin YH, Lin YC, Lee YH, Lin PH, Lin SH, Chang LR, Kuo TB. Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App). J Psychiatr Res. 2015;65:139–45.
Montag C, Błaszkiewicz K, Lachmann B, Sariyska R, Andone I, Trendafilov B, Markowetz A. Recorded behavior as a valuable resource for diagnostics in mobile phone addiction: evidence from psychoinformatics. Behav Sci. 2015;5(4):434–42.
Montag C, Lachmann B, Herrlich M, Zweig K. Addictive features of social media/messenger platforms and Freemium games against the background of psychological and economic theories. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16:2612.