Kieling C, Baker-Henningham H, Belfer M, Conti G, Ertem I, Omigbodun O, et al. Child and adolescent mental health worldwide: evidence for action. The Lancet. 2011;378(9801):1515–25.
Hofstra MB, Van Der Ende J, Verhulst FC. Child and adolescent problems predict DSM-IV disorders in adulthood: a 14-year follow-up of a Dutch epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2002;41(2):182–9.
World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates 2015: Disease burden by cause, age, sex, by country and by region, 2000–2015. www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GHE2015_YLD_Global_2000_2015.xls?ua=1. 2016
Polanczyk G, De Lima MS, Horta BL, Biederman J, Rohde LA. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(6):942–8.
Evans GW, Li D, Whipple SS. Cumulative risk and child development. Psychol Bull. 2013;139(6):1342.
Liaw F-R, Brooks-Gunn J. Cumulative familial risks and low-birthweight children’s cognitive and behavioral development. J Clin Child Psychol. 1994;23(4):360–272.
Appleyard K, Egeland B, van Dulmen MH, Sroufe LA. When more is not better: the role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(3):235–45.
Rutter M. Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1979;8(3):324–38.
Wille N, Bettge S, Ravens-Sieberer U, Bella Study Group. Risk and protective factors for children’s and adolescents’ mental health: results of the BELLA study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;17(Suppl1):133–47.
Lövdén M, Bergman L, Adolfsson R, Lindenberger U, Nilsson L-G. Studying individual aging in an interindividual context: typical paths of age-related, dementia-related, and mortality-related cognitive development in old age. Psychol Aging. 2005;20(2):303–16.
Patel V, Flisher AJ, Hetrick S, McGorry P. Mental health of young people: a global public-health challenge. The Lancet. 2007;369(9569):1302–13.
Moksnes UK, Reidunsdatter RJ. Self-esteem and mental health in adolescents–level and stability during a school year. Norsk Epidemiologi. 2019. https://doi.org/10.5324/nje.v28i1-2.3052.
Schwarzer R. Optimistische Kompetenzerwartung: Zur Erfassung einer personalen Bewältigungsresource [Generalized self-efficacy: Assessment of a personal coping resource]. Diagnostica. 1994;40(2):105–23.
Foulon S, Pingault JB, Larroque B, Melchior M, Falissard B, Cote SM. Developmental predictors of inattention-hyperactivity from pregnancy to early childhood. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):e0125996.
Williams JH, Ross L. Consequences of prenatal toxin exposure for mental health in children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2007;16(4):243–53.
Julvez J, Ribas-Fitó N, Forns M, Garcia-Esteban R, Torrent M, Sunyer J. Attention behaviour and hyperactivity at age 4 and duration of breast-feeding. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96(6):842–7.
Hysing M, Elgen I, Gillberg C, Lie SA, Lundervold AJ. Chronic physical illness and mental health in children. Results from a large-scale population study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007;48(8):785–92.
Douglas P, Hill P. Managing infants who cry excessively in the first few months of life. BMJ. 2011;343:d7772.
Wake M, Morton-Allen E, Poulakis Z, Hiscock H, Gallagher S, Oberklaid F. Prevalence, stability, and outcomes of cry-fuss and sleep problems in the first 2 years of life: prospective community-based study. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3):836–42.
Trentacosta CJ, Hyde LW, Shaw DS, Dishion TJ, Gardner F, Wilson M. The relations among cumulative risk, parenting, and behavior problems during early childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49(11):1211–9.
Carlson MJ, Corcoran ME. Family structure and children’s behavioral and cognitive outcomes. J Marriage Fam. 2001;63:779–92.
Lamborn SD, Mounts NS, Steinberg L, Dornbusch SM. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Dev. 1991;62(5):1049–65.
Fomby P, Cherlin AJ. Family instability and child well-being. Am Sociol Rev. 2007;72(2):181–204.
Freitas GV, Cais CF, Stefanello S, Botega NJ. Psychosocial conditions and suicidal behavior in pregnant teenagers : a case-control study in Brazil. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;17(6):336–42.
Carballo JJ, Garcia-Nieto R, Alvarez-Garcia R, Caro-Canizares I, Lopez-Castroman J, Munoz-Lorenzo L, et al. Sibship size, birth order, family structure and childhood mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48(8):1327–33.
Russell AE, Ford T, Russell G. Socioeconomic associations with ADHD: findings from a mediation analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e028248.
Hardie JH, Landale NS. Profiles of risk: maternal health, socioeconomic status, and child health. J Marriage Fam. 2013;75(3):651–66.
Hintermair M. Parental resources, parental stress, and socioemotional development of deaf and hard of hearing children. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2006;11(4):493–513.
Fulco CJ, Augustyn MB, Henry KL. Maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent health risk problems: the role of school engagement. J Youth Adolesc. 2019;49(1):102–18.
Goodman SH, Connell AM, Hall CM, Rouse MH, Robbins Broth M, Heyward D. Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011;14:1–27.
Lara C, Fayyad J, de Graaf R, Kessler RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Angermeyer M, et al. Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biol Psychiatry. 2009;65(1):46–54.
Mills R, Scott J, Alati R, O’Callaghan M, Najman JM, Strathearn L. Child maltreatment and adolescent mental health problems in a large birth cohort. Child Abuse Negl. 2013;37(5):292–302.
Cohrdes C, Mauz E. Self-efficacy and emotional stability buffer negative effects of adverse childhood experiences on young adult health-related quality of life. J Adolesc Health. 2020;67(1):93–100.
Hamarman S, Bernet W. Evaluating and reporting emotional abuse in children: parent-based, action-based focus aids in clinical decision-making. J-Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39(7):928–30.
Dekovic M. Risk and protective factors in the development of problem behavior during adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 1999;28(6):667–85.
Pascoe EA, Smart RL. Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2009;135(4):531.
Zuba A, Warschburger P. The role of weight teasing and weight bias internalization in psychological functioning: a prospective study among school-aged children. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017;26(10):1245–55.
Wickrama KAS, O’Neal CW, Lee TK. Cumulative socioeconomic adversity, developmental pathways, and mental health risks during the early life course. Emerg Adulthood. 2016;4(6):378–90.
Lanza ST, Rhoades BL, Nix RL, Greenberg MT. Modeling the interplay of multilevel risk factors for future academic and behavior problems: a person-centered approach. Dev Psychopathol. 2010;22(2):313–35.
Collins LM, Lanza ST. Latent class and latent transition analysis: with applications in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Wiley; 2009.
Walrath CM, Petras H, Mandell DS, Stephens RL, Holden EW, Leaf PJ. Gender differences in patterns of risk factors among children receiving mental health services: Latent class analyses. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2004;31(3):297–311.
Göbel K, Scheithauer H, Braker AB, Jonkman H, Soellner R. Substance use patterns among adolescents in europe: a latent class analysis. Subst Use Misuse. 2016;51(9):1130–8.
Ling Y, Huebner ES, He Y-S, Zhong M-T. Three subtypes of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in Chinese adolescents: results of a latent class analysis. Appl Res Qual Life. 2016;11(4):1309–20.
Schultze-Krumbholz A, Göbel K, Scheithauer H, Brighi A, Guarini A, Tsorbatzoudis H, et al. A comparison of classification approaches for cyberbullying and traditional bullying using data from six European countries. J Sch Violence. 2014;14(1):47–65.
Parra GR, DuBois DL, Sher KJ. Investigation of profiles of risk factors for adolescent psychopathology: a person-centered approach. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2006;35(3):386–402.
Fanti KA, Henrich CC. Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care. DP. 2010;46(5):1159.
Lange M, Hoffmann R, Mauz E, Houben R, Gößwald A, Schaffrath Rosario A, et al. KiGGS Wave 2 longitudinal component—data collection design and developments in the numbers of participants in the KiGGS cohort. J Health Monit. 2018;3:92–107.
Mauz E, Gößwald A, Kamtsiuris P, Hoffmann R, Lange M, Von Schenck U, et al. New data for action. Data collection for KiGGS Wave 2 has been completed. J Health Monit. 2017;2:2–27.
Nylund KL. Latent transition analysis: Modeling extensions and an application to peer victimization [Doctoral dissertation]. University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 2007. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.310.4138&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB. When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(8):1179–91.
Woerner W, Becker A, Rothenberger A. Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;13(2):ii3–10.
Becker A, Wang B, Kunze B, Otto C, Schlack R, Hölling H, et al. Normative data of the self-report version of the German Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in an epidemiological setting. Zeitschrift für Kinder-und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie. 2018;46(6):523–33.
Yong M, Fleming CB, McCarty CA, Catalano RF. Mediators of the associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms in late childhood and early adolescence. J Early Adolesc. 2014;34(7):967–1000.
Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus user’s guide: statistical analysis with Latent variables (7th ed.). Muthén M, editor. Los Angeles, CA; 1998–2012.
Nylund K, Bellmore A, Nishina A, Graham S. Subtypes, severity, and structural stability of peer victimization: what does latent class analysis say? CD. 2007;78(6):1706–22.
Vermunt JK. Latent class modeling with covariates: two improved three-step approaches. Polit Anal. 2010;18(4):450–69.
Geiser C. Data analysis with Mplus (series: methodology in the social sciences). New York: Guilford press; 2012.
Romano E, Bell T, Billette J-M. Prevalence and correlates of multiple victimization in a nation-wide adolescent sample. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35(7):468–79.
Finkelhor D, Ormrod R, Turner H, Hamby SL. The victimization of children and youth: a comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreat. 2005;10(1):5–25.
Fuster V, Kelly BB. Committee on preventing the global epidemic of cardiovascular disease: meeting the challenges in developing countries board on global health. Kelly, editors. 2010.
Helfert S, Warschburger P. The face of appearance-related social pressure: gender, age and body mass variations in peer and parental pressure during adolescence. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013;7:16.
Puhl RM, Wall MM, Chen C, Bryn Austin S, Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D. Experiences of weight teasing in adolescence and weight-related outcomes in adulthood: a 15-year longitudinal study. Prev Med. 2017;100:173–9.
Cohen JR, Thomsen KN, Racioppi A, Ballespi S, Sheinbaum T, Kwapil TR, et al. Emerging adulthood and prospective depression: a simultaneous test of cumulative risk theories. J Youth Adolesc. 2019;48(7):1353–64.
Coe JL, Parade SH. Family instability as a unique risk factor for children’s adjustment problems. Brown Univ Child Adolesc Behav Lett. 2019;35(11):1–6.
McCubbin HI, Patterson JM. The family stress process: the double ABCX model of adjustment and adaptation. Marriage Fam Rev. 1983;6(1–2):7–37.
Gaydosh L, Harris KM. Childhood family instability and young adult health. J Health Soc Behav. 2018;59(3):371–90.
Beck AN, Cooper CE, McLanahan S, Brooks-Gunn J. Partnership transitions and maternal parenting. J Marriage Fam. 2010;72(2):219–33.
Stadelmann S, Perren S, Groeben M, von Klitzing K. Parental separation and children’s behavioral/emotional problems: the impact of parental representations and family conflict. Fam Process. 2010;49(1):92–108.
Lee D, McLanahan S. Family structure transitions and child development: Instability, selection, and population heterogeneity. Am Sociol Rev. 2015;80(4):738–63.
Craigie T-AL, Brooks-Gunn J, Waldfogel J. Family structure, family stability and outcomes of five-year-old children. Fam Relatsh Soc. 2012;1(1):43–61.
Brand C, Howcroft G, Hoelson CN. The voice of the child in parental divorce: implications for clinical practice and mental health practitioners. J Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2017;29(2):169–78.
Sands A, Thompson EJ, Gaysina D. Long-term influences of parental divorce on offspring affective disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2017;218:105–14.
Scheithauer H, Hayer T, Petermann F, Jugert G. Physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying among German students: age trends, gender differences, and correlates. Aggress Behav. 2006;32(3):261–75.
Koepke MF, Harkins DA. Conflict in the classroom: gender differences in the teacher–child relationship. Early Educ Dev. 2008;19(6):843–64.
Wallace JM Jr, Goodkind S, Wallace CM, Bachman JG. Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in school discipline among US high school students: 1991–2005. Negro Educ Rev. 2008;59(1–2):47.
Bond L, Butler H, Thomas L, Carlin J, Glover S, Bowes G, et al. Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. J Adolesc Health. 2007;40(4):357 e9–18.
Foster CE, Horwitz A, Thomas A, Opperman K, Gipson P, Burnside A, et al. Connectedness to family, school, peers, and community in socially vulnerable adolescents. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2017;81:321–31.
Scheithauer H, Hess M, Schultze-Krumbholz A, Bull HD. School-based prevention of bullying and relational aggression in adolescence: The fairplayer manual. New Dir Youth Dev. 2012;2012(133):55–70.
Cox B, Oyen HV, Cambois E, Jagger C, Roy Sl, Robine J-M, Romieu I. The reliability of the Minimum European Health Module. Int J Public Health. 2009;54(2):55–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-009-7104-y.
Schwarzer R, Jersusalem M. Generalized self-efficacy scale. In: Weinman J, Wright S, Johnston M, editors. Measures in health psychology: A user's portfolio Causal and control beliefs. 1. Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON; 1995. p. 35–7.
König W, Lüttinger P, Müller W. A comparative analysis of the development and structure of educational systems: Methodological foundations and the construction of a comparative educational scale. Universität München, Institut für Sozialwissenschaften; 1988.
Cummins RA, Eckersley R, Pallant J, Van Vugt J, Misajon R. Developing a national index of subjective wellbeing: The Australian Unity Wellbeing Index. Social Indicators Res. 2003;64(2):159–90. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024704320683.
Sperlich S, Arnhold-Kerri S, Geyer S. Soziale Lebenssituation und Gesundheit von Müttern in Deutschland. Social living conditions and health among mothers in Germany. Bundesgesundheitsblatt - Gesundheitsforschung - Gesundheitsschutz. 2011;54(6):735–44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-011-1283-4.
Schneewind KA. Die Familienklimaskalen (FKS). In: Cierpka M, editor. Familiendiagnostik. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 1988. p. 232–55.
World Health Organization (WHO). Adverse Childhood Experiences International Querstionnaire (ACE-IQ); 2018. https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/activities/adverse_childhood_experiences/en/.
Reitzle M, Winkler C, Steinhausen HC. Eltern und Kinder: Der Zürcher Kurzfragebogen zum Erziehungsverhalten (ZKE). Diagnostica 2001;47(4):196–207. https://doi.org/10.1026//0012-19126.96.36.199.
Bernstein DP, Stein JA, Newcomb MD, Walker E, Pogge D, Ahluvalia T, Stokes J, Handelsman L, Medrano M, Desmond D, Zule W. Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect. 2003;27(2):169–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(02)00541-0.
Ravens-Sieberer U, Wille N, Bettge S, Erhart M. Psychische Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland. Ergebnisse aus der BELLA-Studie im Kinder- und Jugendgesundheitssurvey (KiGGS) [Mental health of children and adolescents in Germany. Results from the BELLA study within the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt 2007;50(5-6):871–8.
Deutsches Jugendinstitut (DJI). DJI Foreigner Survey - Young People, GESIS Data Archive, 1.0.0; 2001. https://doi.org/10.4232/1.3371.